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Cornell University Library 

DS 489.C37C4 

The Ceylon government railway :a descri 

3 1924 023 977 659 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 




The Book Of Geyloil. An Account 

of its Varied Attractions for the Visitor 
and Tourist. 

664 Pages. 736 Illustrations. 12s. net. 

" This is a most exhaustive work on Ceylon, and the author, a learned graduate of Oxford, 
is well qualified by long residence and travel throughout the island to speak with authority. 
The book is a perfect mine of information." — Scottisli Geographical Magazine. 

" This volume seems to contain almost everything that can be said about the island, tell- 
ing the reader all he should see, describing the industries of the country, and giving practical 
guidance as to expenses." — The Spectator. 

" It is a big name which Mr. Cave has given to his book, but he has evidently resolved 
that the volume shall live up to its title. It is in fact one of the most comprehensive and 
thoroughly satisfactory books we have ever seen, and no visitor to Ceylon will be able to do 
without it." — The Aberdeen Journal. 


Goldeil Tips. A Description of Ceylon 
and its Great Tea Industry. 

With 213 Illustrations from Photographs by the Author. 10s. 6d. net. 

" Mr. Cave seems to hold a brief for the whole Island of Ceylon, with its varied attrac- 
tions. . . . The charm of Cingalese life and nature is depicted with glowing colours and 
interesting details." — Athenaum. 

" Mr. H. W. Cave has given us a most fascinating and picturesque account of Ceylon. 
No one will read the book, with its entrancing photographs, without wishing to set out at 
once to the enchanted island." — Westminster Gazette. 

"Mr. H. W. Cave deserves well of Ceylon. He has done an immense amount of work 
in making the attractions of the Colony known to the reading public who reside in other 
parts of the Kmpire. His latest work is a splendid effort."— Standard, 


The Ruined Cities of Ceylon. 

FOURTH EDITION. 12s. net. 

" A most fascinating and beautiful book. Superlative praise is the only thing it merits." 
— Antiquary. 

" Written in a very pleasant and scholarly style. "—Spectator. 

"The warmest thanks of every student of Oriental monuments are due to Mr. Henry 
W. Cave." — Daily Chronicle. 


Baudenkmaler aus Altester Zeit 
in Ceylon. 

Hack dem Englischtn des HENRY IF. CAVE, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Ins_Deutsche Ubertragen von Anna, Grafin v. Zech. mit 65 Voilbiidem nach original 'aitfnahm en 
des verfassers. 12s. nut. 








M.A. (Oxon.), F.R.GS. 





London, New York, Toronto and Meleourne. mcmx 


First Edition, 6,000 copies 
Printed July, iqio 




I. — Introductory .......... i 

II. — Colombo ........... 4 

III. — General Description of the Ceylon Government Railway . 19 

IV.— The Coast Line Itinerary ....... 32 

V.— The Main Line Itinerary — Colombo to Peradeniya — The 

Royal Botanic Gardens — Randy ..... 69 

VI. — The Ma tale Line Itinerary . . . . . . ..116 

VII.— The Main Line Itinerary Resumed — Peradeniya J unction 

to Bandar awe la, including Adam's Peak . . . 125 

VIII. — The Udapussellawa Line Itinerary, including Nuwara 

Eliya . . . . . . . . . .155 

IX.- — The Northern Line Itinerary— from Polgahawela Junction 

to Kankesanturai ........ 168 

X. — The Kelani Valley Itinerary — Colombo to Yatiyantota . 215 

XL — The Negombo Line ......... 231 

Railway Map of Ceylon Giving Distances of Stations and their 

Elevation above Sea Level ..... Facing 1 

Map of the Fort of Colombo ........ 7 

Plan of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya . . . .90 

Map of the Town of Kandy ........ m: 

Map of Anuradiiapuea ......... 173 

Useful Information for Visitors to Ceylon 





The attractions of Ceylon are manifold and appeal to a variety Attractions 
of tastes and needs. First of all the economic conditions of Ce y' on 
of the country are encouraging to the capitalist who devotes 
his energies to tropical agriculture; tea, rubber, cocoa, carda- 
moms, and coconuts flourish remarkably and seldom fail to 
yield an abundant return to the careful investor. Man)' people 
visit Ceylon in search of health, or to escape the rigours of 
the European winter, and it is noticeable that the visit once 
made is often repeated. As a health resort Ceylon not only 
possesses a warm and equable climate, but the recommenda- 
tion of complete change of scene. To the enervated European 
residents of the plains of India it is a veritable paradise ; 
they are discovering that a visit to Kandy and Nuwara Eliya 
is not only a source of health but of enjoyment, and that it 
restores their vanished energies without the great expenditure 
of time and money involved in a voyage to Europe. To the 
leisured classes who travel the attractions of Ceylon arc per- 
haps the greatest, and it is satisfactory to be able to assure 
them that consideration for their comfort and convenience is 
always increasing. The northern section of the railway has 
added immensely to the opportunities of the visitor, who can 
now explore the most remarkable antiquities in the world with 
a reasonable expenditure of time and in perfect comfort. 
Every leisured taste can be gratified — whether it be anti- 
quarian, aesthetic, ethnological, entomological, botanical or 
sporting ; and when it is considered that the gratification of 
such tastes can be accomplished in such an agreeable climate 
and during a period when the very opposite conditions prevail 
in Europe it is almost a wonder that any who can avail them- 
selves of these opportunities fail to do so. 






Not the least of its attractions are the great variety and 
choice of climate that Ceylon affords. Fortunately the best 
months for visiting the countrv are those which in Europe are 
the most disagreeable. The recent extensions of the railway 
system in rendering the ruined cities easily and comfortably 
accessible have made Ceylon more than ever a desirable retreat 
during winter months ; and if it has not yet rivalled Egypt 
in popularity the circumstance is clue less to its climate and 
attractions than its distance. For general salubrity it is 
unrivalled in the East. Notwithstanding the variety of tem- 
perature to be met with at various stations and elevations, 
the equability of each is remarkable, and stands in great con- 
trast to the fickleness of European weather. Classification of 
the climate of Ceylon is easy : (i.) moist and hot but tempered 
by cool sea breezes, with a temperature of 75 to S5 F. as 
in most of the maritime provinces, including the towns ol 
Negombo, Colombo, Kalutara, Galle and Matara; (ii.) hot 
and drv, as the north-west coast and the peninsula of Jaffna; 
(iii.) humid and warm, as in the hilly regions bordering the 
great mountain belt, with a shade temperature of 75 F. by 
da}' and 70 F. by night; and (iv.) temperate, as in the tea 
districts of the mountain zone, where the shade temperature 

averages by day from 

to 65 F. according to elevation, 

aspect and other causes. The annual rainfall is less than 
50 inches in Jaffna, the north-west, and the south-east; from 
50 to 75 inches in the north-east; 75 to 100 inches in a belt 
of twenty miles width surrounding the mountain zone ; and 
from 100 to 200 inches in the tea-country. The occurrence of 
rain can be anticipated with fair accuracy, and the seasons 
for heavy downpours regularly coincide with the change of the 
monsoons. From October to May north-east winds prevail ; 
for the rest of the vear the south-west monsoon blows con- 
tinually. To the influence of these monsoons and the uniform 
temperature of the surrounding oceans the equable and tem- 
perate character of the Ceylon climate is mainly due. April, 
May, October and November are the wettest months. As much 
as 53 inches has been registered in Colombo during October 
and November ; but the tourist will find the latter month not 
unfavourable for a sojourn in Ceylon. August and September 
are often delightful months in Ceylon, and although they do 
not suit the traveller from Europe, thev are in favour with the 
European resident of India, Burmah and the Straits Settle- 
ments, who is beginning to find that a visit to Ceylon for health 
and pleasure is the most profitable within his reach. 

It is perhaps scarcely necessary to remark that there are no 
seasons in Ceylon as we know them in Europe; the difference in 
the hot districts lies between hot and a little hotter, and in more 
temperate districts between cool and a little cooler. Tennent, 


in a passage that cannot be improved upon, says : " No period climate 
of the year is divested of its seed-time and its harvest in some 
part of the island ; the fruit hangs ripe on the same branches 
that arc garlanded with opening buds. But as every plant has 
its own period for the production of its flowers and fruit, each Flora 
month is characterised by its own peculiar flora. As regards 
the foliage of the trees, it might be expected that the variety 
of tints would be wanting which form the charm of a European 
landscape, and that all nature would wear one mantle of 
unchanging green. But, although in Ceylon there is no 
revolution of seasons, the change of leaf on the same plant 
exhibits colours as bright as those which tinge the autumnal 
woods of America. It is not the decaying leaves, but the fresh 
shoots, which exhibit these bright colours, the older are still 
vividly green, whilst the young are bursting forth; and the 
extremities of the branches present tufts of pale yellow, pink, 
crimson, and purple, which give them at a distance the appear- 
ance of a cluster of flowers." 

It may be useful to the intending visitor to indicate the 
sort of weather he is likely to meet with at the various centres 
of interest in each of the months usually chosen for visiting 

During December Colombo is in many respects plcasanter climate f, 
than at anv other time of the year. It is cloudy and compara- 
tively cool, and has an average rainfall of six inches for the 
month, which serves well to keep the vegetation at its best, 
and the golf links and other recreation grounds in good con- 
dition. The rain seldom keeps the visitor prisoner for more 
than a very few hours, while the longer intervals of fine weather 
are delightful. The same conditions apply to the south coast 
and to Kandy. In Nuwara Eliya the fine weather and the 
wet are about equal. Anuradhapura expects wet days, but 
during the fine intervals is more attractive by reason of the 
lakes and pokunas being well filled with water. Jaffna is 
agreeable, and its well-tilled fields look smiling and pleasant. 

Januarv is on the whole a better month for the visitor. Jamia-y 
The winds are dry and cool, and it is necessary in Colombo 
to avoid sitting in them when heated from exercise, or sleeping 
with windows open to the north. The nights are refreshing, 
and early morning exercise pleasant. It is a good month for 
visiting the many towns of interest on the south and south- 
west coasts. Kandy is cool and delightful and admits of sleep 
beneath the blanket, while in the mornings and evenings 
vigorous walking can be indulged in with pleasure. Nuwara 
Eliva has now a mean temperature of 56 F. Fires in the 
evening are comfortable, while the early mornings are often 
frosty. The rainfall here averages six inches during this month ; 
but the fine days are glorious. Anuradhapura has not definitely 


climate arrived at its fine weather period, but is generally pleasant. 

It is perhaps sufficient to say that all the photographs in this 
book illustrating the ruins of the city were taken during the 
month of January. Jaffna is quite at its best and much cooler 
than in the later months. 

February In February Colombo is dry ; the nights are cloudless and 

cool. In Kandy it is the finest month of the year; the days 
are bright and sunn)-, the early mornings cold, the evenings 
most agreeable and the nights dewy. Nuwara Eliya is also 
in its best mood, and is probably at this time as regards climate 
the pleasantest spot on the earth. February is also a good 
month for visiting Anuradhapura, and quite the best for trips 
to Dambulla, Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa. Jaffna is also fine, 
and although it is much warmer than in January it is not yet 
too hot to be pleasant. 

March In March the heat in Colombo increases rapidly, the earth 

receiving more heat than is lost bv radiation and evaporation. 
The temperature rises to 87 F. during the day and seldom 
descends below 8o° F. at night. There is consequently 
amongst Europeans a general exodus to the hills. Kandy is 
rather warmer than in February ; the range of the thermometer 
has decreased and the morning air has lost its crispness ; but 
the climate is pleasant and the month is a good one for the 
tourist. Nuwara Eliya is still delightful as in February, but 
with diminishing range of temperature, the nights being less 
cold. At the ruined cities the conditions are favourable to 
tine visitor, the month being quite fine. Jaffna becomes hot, 
but not unbearably so, and the tourist should not leave it out 
of his itinerary. 



To the end that this account of the facilities afforded by the 
Ceylon Government Railway may serve as a comprehensive 
handbook for the traveller, it will be useful here to give some 
account of the amenities of the port of arrival, and such 
information as will enable the steamship passenger to enjoy 
its many attractions to the best advantage. 
First aiimpse The character of the first glimpse of Ceylon necessarily 

of Ceylon yaries with the time of day and the atmospheric conditions 

that may be prevailing. During the north-east monsoon, from 
October to April, which is the best season for visiting Ceylon, 
the conditions are generally favourable, and the scene which 
unfolds itself to us if we are early risers, and have the good 
fortune to approach the coast at break of day, is one of unique 


We behold first the mountain zone, saered to tea production, First aiimp 
rising in one might)' upheaval from the plains of Ceylon, and ° ey on 
capped in the centre by the venerated peak named alter our 
first parent. The mists are as yet lying- in the valleys, and 
the cool blue tones above them give us the true contour of 
those fertile mountains upon which millions of tea bushes are 
nourishing. At different elevations there are four extensive 
ledges which appear to rise abruptly from the base, and from 
these a number of lofty mountains raise their rugged brows to 
the height of 5,000 to 8,000 feet. 

As we approach nearer and nearer we see the mists arise, 
attracted upwards by the rays of the rising sun, and a scene 
of verdant loveliness is disclosed which stands in welcome con- 
trast to the parched and barren shores we have left behind 
at Suez and Aden. The mountains are now lost to view and 
the details of the beautiful palm-fringed shores gradually 
increase as we steam towards the harbour. 

The harbour is formed of three artificial breakwaters, 
enclosing- an area of 660 acres. Some idea of the masses of 
water that are hurled against these concrete walls during the 
fury of the monsoons may be gathered from our illustration.. 



Sinhalese \y L . have now arrived within the harbour, and our atten- 

tion is arrested by many quaint scenes. A multitude of 
canoes from the shore are making for our vessel. Their 
singular form immediately excites our curiosity. Each is 
constructed from the trunk of a tree, which is first hollowed 
out and then levelled at the top. Balance is secured by an 
outrigger attachment, which consists of two poles of wood 
extending at right angles to a distance of about ten feet 
from the body of the boat, and connected at the ends by 
a float. Boats of this construction are used by the Sinhalese 
for fishing and for passenper traffic. They withstand the 
roughest sea, and literally fly before the breeze. As each 
steamer drops anchor within the magnificent breakwater 
of Colombo these weird craft crowd around, many of them 
bringing traders laden with precious stones, which will be 
offered at double or treble their value to unwary passengers; 
others plying for the hire of their boats to take passengers 
ashore, some with dusky Tamils who sing unceasingly to 
the plash of their oars ; many with comely Sinhalese of 
lighter complexion, their long hair twisted into a thick knot 
surmounted by a tortoiseshell comb, giving them a curiously 
feminine appearance ; some with Indo-Arab traders in curious 
costumes of many hues, their shaven heads crowned with tall 
plaited brimless hats of parti-coloured silks. This motley fleet 
is the first scene of novelty that claims attention upon arrival 
in the harbour of Colombo. 

Landing The distance of the landing jetty from our ship will vary 

from a mile to a few hundred yards according to the berth 
allotted for anchorage. Passengers go ashore at their own 
convenience in launches, canoes, or jollv boats, all of which 
plv for hire around the steamer. The boats are licensed. The 
rates of hire are observable in a prominent place upon arrival 
at the landing jetty, and a jetty sergeant is present to afford 
information and check anv incivility on the part of boatmen. 

The Customs officials are courteous and obliging to 
travellers, who are not required to pay duty on such articles as 
comprise ordinary travelling baggage. But firearms are liable 
to a duty of five to ten rupees ; and articles which are not in 
use and possess a market value are liable to a duty of §j4 
per cent, on that value. 

Rates of carriage hire, 'rickshaw hire, portages and statis- 
tical information generally are given at the end of this volume, 
and will be easily found on reference to the index. 

The Fort Li few of the world's large ports is the traveller offered 

so pleasant a prospect upon landing. There is usually a slum 
to be traversed before the surroundings become attractive, but 
here we are at once in pleasant places. Upon leaving the 
jetty we arrive in the Fort, which term in olden times 




bore its literal meaning; but now indicates that portion of 
Colombo occupied chiefly by the residence of the Governor, 
the offices of the Government and of the British merchants. 
We are impressed by the prosperous appearance of the 
place. The streets are broad, the roads are good, the 
merchants' offices and stores are capacious and in many 
instances possess considerable architectural merit, while the 
hotels are superior to any others in the East, a matter of no 
small importance to the traveller and resident alike. We are 
at once confronted by one of them . the Grand Oriental Hotel 
faces us as we leave the harbour. 

Other first-class hotels are the Bristol in York Street, the 
Galle Eace Hotel at the southern end of the esplanade, and 
the Mount Lavinia, about seven miles down the coast; while 
amongst the smaller ones are the Globe and the British India. 

The Eort, a plan of which is annexed, can easily be ex- 
plored on foot and without a guide. By turning to the right 
upon reaching the Grand Oriental Hotel we pass the old 
banqueting hall of the Dutch Governors, which now does duty 
as the English Garrison Church of St. Peter. It contains 
some interesting memorials, and is worth a visit. Turning 
again to the left we pass along Queen Street, with the Gordon 
Gardens on our right and the Legislative Council Chamber 
and various Government offices on the left (Plate 2). The 






The Qu.en's 

Vest Op'ic 

Government archives are also located here and include the 
official records of the Dutch Government from the year 1640 
to 1796, besides the British records from the latter date. The 
Gordon Gardens are on our right, and adjoining them is the 
residence of the Governor of the colon}', known as the Queen's 
House. Although not a handsome building, its massive 
masonry and spacious corridors provide what is most desirable 
in a tropical residence, protection from the sun's rays, while 
the grounds of some four acres are shaded by beautiful trees. 
It was erected about the middle of the last century. We 
cannot give an adequate idea of the architecture or general 
appearance of this building from a photograph, for it is not 
only in a somewhat confined position for so large a house, but 
is also embowered in foliage. Some idea of its appearance 
from the street may be gathered from our Plate 3. 

Immediately opposite the Queen's House is the General 
Post Office (Plate 4). The colony is abreast of the times 
in its postal arrangements, and in many instances offers 
advantages that the Old Country has not begun to provide, 
notably, a value-payable parcels post ; while its post-card and 
newspaper rates are one-third lower than in Great Britain. 


The visitor will find the arrangements for his convenience 
satisfactory and complete. He will enter by the handsome 
flight of steps leading to a spacious hall floored with intaglio 
tiles. Here he will find the poste-restante counters as well as 
every other postal facility. 

The next buildings to claim our notice as we pass along 
Oueen Street are the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank and the 
Chartered Bank of India on the left (Plate 5). 

Opposite these banks is another institution of a similar 
character, the Mercantile Bank of India. An equally venerable 
thing is the sacred Bo Tree which flourishes at its entrance. 
This tree is of the same species as the famous specimen at 
Anuradhapura, now upwards of two thousand years old, whose 
history is described on a later page. 

Here Queen Street is intersected by Chatham Street, and 
in the middle of the crossings stands the Lighthouse of 
Colombo, which serves the additional purpose of a clock tower. 
The quadrilateral shape of this building is unusual in a light- 
house, and its more important purpose is sometimes unsus- 
pected by the visitor who passes by. As we approach the end 
of Queen Street we notice the military officers' quarters on the 
right, the left being occupied chiefly by the offices of shipping 
houses and produce brokers. 

We now proceed by way of Chatham Street. The stranger 
will be struck with the picturesque appearance of this and other 
streets of Colombo due to the Pithecolobiurn saman or rain 




Colombo trees by which they are shaded. They are called rain trees 

from the circumstance that at night the leaves fold into a kind 
of sac in which the moisture condenses and at sunrise when 
the leaves open is discharged in a shower. The Suriya tree 
(Thespesia populnea) also affords shade to many of the streets 
and roads ; it flowers profusely with delicate primrose-coloured 
blossoms, large and showy, changing to purple as they fade, 
and in form resembling the single scarlet hibiscus. The roads 
are metalled with dark red cabook, a product of disintegrated 
gneiss, which being subjected to detrition communicates its 
hue to the soil. Chatham Street is composed of a strange 

jewellers medley ot restaurants, native jewellers, curiosity shops and pro- 

vision boutiques , the houses being for the most part old and 
limited to one floor. It is a remnant of old Colombo in the 
sailing-ship days and must soon disappear, as most of the 
Dutch buildings have already done, to give place to colossal 
houses of business befitting the dignity of the port. 

York si, cei We turn to the left into York Street (Plate 7), which would 

scarcely be recognised by those who left Ceylon twenty 
years ago. It contained the eastern wall and moat of the 
old Dutch fort, which have disappeared in favour of the 
Registrar General's office, the Bristol Hotel, the National Bank 
of India and the Victoria Arcade. Prince Street and Baillie 
Street intersect the square which we have traversed. The 
latter is a somewhat narrow and treeless but busy thorough- 
fare, containing merchants' offices and the Bank of Madras. 
Prince Street also consists entirely of mercantile houses. 

Having now given a brief sketch of the Fort, we 

Colombo" 66 proceed with a few hints as to the best means of seeing 
the rest of Colombo. The visitor with little time at his 
command should spend half an hour round the Fort by the 
route described ; then take a first-class seat in front of the tram- 
car lor the Grand Pass terminus upon the Kelaniya River; next 
visit Maradana and Borella by the same means of locomotion ; 
afterwards hire a carriage,* drive along Galle Face, Union 
Place, Yauxhall Road, the Lake, Hyde Park Corner, the 
Cinnamon Gardens, the Hospital, Horton Place, Gregory's 
Road, the Museum, Turret Road, Polwatte and Kollupitiya. 
Then if time permits drive to Mutwal. The visitor who follows 
this route will have seen Colombo, and should it be his first 
visit to the East he will have received enough new impressions 
to dwell upon for many days. 

Tramways A start is made for Grand Pass from the Fort terminus 

near the Grand Oriental Hotel. Most of the cars are fitted 
with outside seats in front, which are first class. Into one 
ot these we step. We now leave the Fort and are carried 
along past tens of thousands of tons of coal which proclaim 
* For rates of carriage hire, etc., see Index. 




Colombo their own story of the vast amount of shipping that comes 

this way. A minute later we are in the Pettah, the natives' 
mart. The effect is kaleidoscopic. Moormen or Indo-Arab 
traders occupy Main Street with well-stocked stores containing" 
everv description of goods. In the vicinity of the Town Hall 
we notice the great diversitv of races represented : Sinhalese, 
Moors, Tamils, Parsees, Dutch, Portuguese, Malays and 
Afghans ; the varietv of costume worn by each race in 
accordance with caste or social position, from the simple loin 
cloth of the cooly to the gorgeous attire of the wealthy and 
high-caste gentleman ; the different complexions and forms of 
toilet, the avocations carried on in the open street, are all enter- 
taining to the visitor who for the first time becomes a witness 
of the manners and customs of oriental life. At every turn 
the eye is met by a fresh picture. This mixed and motley 
crowd live their life and carry on their labours almost entirely 
in public. Neither doors, windows, nor shutters interfere with 
a complete view of the interior of their houses and stalls. The 
handicraftsman works serenely in his open shed, sometimes 
even in the open street ; women are occupied in their most 
domestic affairs unveiled from the glance of the curious 
passer-by, and tiny children, clothed only in the rich tints 
of their own complexions, sport amongst the traffic. All this 
harmonises charmingly with the conditions of climate and the 
nature of the people. The heat renders clothing uncomfortable, 
The Grand Pass and closed up dwellings unendurable. The tram ride is 
Tramway perhaps too rapid for the stranger to fully appreciate these 

novel scenes ; but a glance at them through three miles of 
native streets is all that time affords. The terminus is reached 
at the River Kelaniya. 
Tin Bo>-,iia W e now return to our starting point and take a seat in 

the car that moves off in the opposite direction. Proceeding* 
up York Street and turning to the left, we pass the Survey 
Office, Public Works Office, Chamber of Commerce, and the 
Port Railway Station. The lake scenerv first claims our 
attention. Presently we pass the Royal College situated on 
high ground to the left. This is the principal Government 
educational institution, the nucleus of a future university, 
shortly to be removed and rebuilt on a new site. A ferry 
connecting with a peninsula of the lake called Captain's 
Garden provides a pretty bit of scenery, and here we notice 
the operations of the washerman, the dark, dank dhoby who 
bleaches our soiled linen by the primitive method of beating 
it upon slabs of rock. Upon leaving the lake the line passes 
the Railway Goods Station upon the right and the Technical 
College upon the left. 

After passing the Technical College we proceed along Mara- 
dana Road for half a mile, when we pass over the railway at 




the Maradana Junction Station, the principal station whence Colombo 
trains leave tor the coast line and the Kelani Valley as well as 
lor up-country and the northern line. Then we notice on our 
lelt the Police Headquarters and Parade Ground, and on the 
right the largest Mohammedan mosque in Colombo. 

Other notable places are the Lady Havelock Hospital for 
women and children and Campbell Park, into which the visitor 
might stroll for a few minutes before taking- a tram back again. 
On the return journey we might look out more particularly 
for quaint scenes in the bazaars through which we pass. Tlteba.zaa.rz 
The open character of the native shops is universal; they 
vary only in the classes of goods they have for sale. The 
customers are almost as varied as the wares. The Sinhalese 
man of sienna complexion, wearing his long hair gathered 
up into a knot surmounted by a comb of tortoiseshell, is 
attired in garb varying with caste, even the comb assuming 
different forms in accordance with social position. The 
Sinhalese women too have a multitude of distinctions in dress. 

Our next business is a drive through pleasant places where a pleasant 
we shall see something of native life amidst the exquisite dr,vc 
scenery with which this most beautiful of tropical cities 
entrances the traveller of esthetic temperament. Our choice 
in the matter of conveyance lies between the jinrickshaw and 
the horse carriage, victoria or waggonette of somewhat in- 
different quality to be hired in Colombo. If our choice falls 
upon the former, a rubber-tyred 'rickshaw should be chosen ; 
if the latter, a waggonette is preferable as offering less obstruc- 
tion to view. It is advisable to obtain either through the hotel 
attendant, and to give him sufficient notice to enable him to 
secure the best procurable. A licensed guide* may be of 
service, but he must be required to adhere to the route marked 
out, and he should be allowed only to answer questions and 
act where necessary as interpreter. We drive through Prince 
and Queen Streets which are by this time familiar to us and 
onwards to Galle Face. Upon leaving the Fort we notice 
first the military barracks on our left, built on the foundation 
of the old wall of the Dutch fort and fronted by a spacious 
parade ground. It will be seen that of the five handsome blocks 
four arc placed en echelon so that each may receive the full 
benefit of the sea breeze. Next we arrive upon Galle c.aiu i-acc 
Face, which is an open lawn about one mile in length and 
three hundred yards wide, flanked on one side by the sea and 
the other by the lake. It is controlled by the military 
authority, but used by the public as a recreation ground for 
football, cricket, hockey and other games. 

At the extreme southern end of the Galle Face Esplanade GaUe Face 
and in close proximity to the sea stands the luxurious Galle Hotel 
* For regulations respecting guides refer to Index. 


Colombo Face Hotel. We now cross over the central road, avoiding the 

turn to Kollupitiya on the east side of the hotel, and pass by 
Christ Church and the Masonic Temple. 
slave island Next we cross a bridge into Slave Island, an unpleasant 

name given to this locality by the Dutch who used it as a prison 
for their State slaves. The coast railway line is now crossed, 
and we proceed along Union Place for about half a mile. 
The first turning to the left brings us immediately to some 
pretty lakeside views. Attention at this spot is divided between 
the charming landscape and the operations of the dhobies upon 
the banks in the foreground. Groups of bronze-tinted figures 
are waist-deep in the water, engaged in the destructive 
occupation of cleansing linen by beating it upon the rocks. 

Across the lake at this point is St. Joseph's College, an 
establishment for the higher education of Roman Catholic 
boys. It has five towers, and in general appearance somewhat 
resembles an Italian palace. It is erected on one of the most 
charming sites conceivable, environed with beautiful palms 
and flowering trees and overlooking the finest part of the 
extensive lake of Colombo. 
The lake Turning to the left we now drive down Vauxhall Road for 

a quarter of a mile and then turn sharplv to the left, crossing 
Union Place and making our way beneath an avenue of trees 
to another picturesque stretch of the lake. At this point are 
several charming pictures affording an opportunity not to be 
missed by the amateur photographer. This fresh-water lake 
is one of the most charming features of Colombo. Its rami- 
fications are so manv that one is constantly coming- across 
pretty nooks and corners quite unexpectedly, each fresh view 
presenting a wealth of foliage luxuriant beyond description. 
Palms in great variety intermingle with the gorgeous mass 
of scarlet flamboyant blossoms, the lovely lemon-yellow lettuce 
tree, the ever-graceful bamboo, the crimson blooms of the dark 
hibiscus, contrasting with the rich green of the areca, date 
and palmyra palms, the huge waving leaves of the plantain, 
flowering trees and shrubs of every description of tropical 
foliage, the whole forming to the rippling water a border of 
unrivalled beautv and unfailing interest. 
Park street We now leave the lake to explore the roads and houses of 

residential Colombo, which extends for about four square miles 
to the south of the lake and is centred by the Victoria Park. 
The Victoria Park is an ornamental recreation ground laid 
out with gardens, band stand and promenade, golf links, tennis 
courts, a galloping course for riders and a circular carriage drive. 
The whole is bounded by bungalows with their picturesque 
The Museum grounds. Here, too, will be found the Colombo Museum. 
The bronze statue on the lawn facing the entrance is that of 
Sir William Gregorv, one of Cevlon's most successful 










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Governors, who ruled the colony from 1872 to 1877, during Colombo 
which period the museum was erected. The scientific and 
educational value of this institution is recognised and appre- 
ciated greatly by a large portion of the community ; while it 
serves a still larger class as a show place always interesting 
and attractive. In the central hall are brasses and ivory. The 
Ceylon products room contains all manner of things peculiar 
to the colony : jeweller)', coins, models of various operations, 
including pearl fishing, masks of devil dancers, tom-toms in 
great variety, the sumptuously enshrined and devoutly wor- 
shipped Buddha's tooth, and ethnological models in great 
variety displaying many curious native costumes. In the 
archaeological rooms arc to be seen a highly interesting 
collection of works of art from the ancient ruined cities. The 
natural history galleries on the upper floors are filled with 
fine specimens of indigenous birds, beasts and fishes. The 
many curiosities of the insect world will surprise the stranger, 
for Ceylon abounds in insect life. 

This part of Colombo, including the Victoria Park and 
extending west and south of it in a whole series of cross roads 
and crescents, is popularly known as the Cinnamon Gardens 
from the circumstance that it was, in the time of the Dutch 
occupation of Colombo, one of their chief reserves under 
cultivation of that precious spice. But for the last half- 
century the bushes have been fast disappearing in favour of 
the beautiful bungalows and gardens which make the locality 
one of the most charming residential spots conceivable, the 
envy and admiration of visitors from the southern colonies. 

The greatest charm to many a visitor is the drive, which Reads a/the 
can be extended to ten miles or so, along the many parallel carfen"" 
roads, cross roads and crescents to the west and south of the 
Victoria Park. The houses, so different from those of colder 
countries, quite innocent of dirty chimney stacks and fire 
grates, are quite in accord with the charm of their surround- 
ings. Each residence nestles in a paradise of palms and 
flowering shrubs of infinite variety, gorgeous crotons and 
creepers innumerable, the latter overgrowing roofs and pillars 
and climbing the neighbouring trees, which they bespangle 
with their lovely blossoms. 

The Havelock Race-course is to the south of the Victoria The Race-course 
Park. Here the Colombo Turf Club has its regular race 
meetings. Gymkhanas and other sports are also held here at 
various intervals under the auspices of the Polo Club, whose 
ground is the open space inside the course. 

The Ridgeway Golf Links are reached by driving to the The Goij Links 
end of Horton Place. The course is extensive, complete and 
well laid out. The greens will be found very fast but generally 




SI. Thomas's 

There are several interesting routes by which we may 
return to the Fort. If after our wanderings we happen to be 
near the race-course we shall drive down Race-course Avenue 
and return to Galle Face or the Fort by way of Flower Road, 
Green Path, or Turret Road and Kollupitiya. 

A drive round the suburb of Mutwal, to the north of the 
Fort, would make our acquaintance with Colombo nearly 
complete, and is to be recommended in case of this being our 
first experience of a tropical citv. Our way is through Main 
Street and the Pettah, where we shall again be interested in the 
quaint scenes of native daily life and occupation. We pass the 
Dutch Belfry, the Town Hall and the Market Place, and turn 
into Wolfendahl Street, which bears to the right and leads 
direct to a most interesting remnant of the Dutch occupation, 
a massive church in Doric style, built by the Dutch in 1749. 
The drive may now be continued in a north-eastcrlv direction 
to the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Santa Lucia, which is the 
finest building in Colombo. The nave is capable of accom- 
modating six thousand persons. In a north-westerlv direction 
another half-mile brings us to St. Thomas's College, one of 
the leading educational institutions of the colony, founded by 
Bishop Chapman, first Anglican Bishop of Colombo in 1851. 

From the tower of the Cathedral a good view of the harbour 
may be obtained. 

The suburb of Mutwal has been to some extent robbed of 
its beauty by the great encroachment of harbour works and 
fortifications, but north of these it is more beautiful and in- 
teresting than any other part of the coast near Colombo. 




There is no consideration more important to the traveller 
who intends visiting a far-off country than the facilities 
afforded by its railways and roads. Fortunately Ceylon is well 
equipped in both respects. Her railway now affords an easy 
and even luxurious means of reaching- the most attractive parts 
of the country. It renders easily and quickly accessible the 
most beautiful scenery, the more interesting antiquities and 
all those fields of agricultural industry — the tea, the coconuts 
and the rubber, which have brought about the advanced state 
of prosperity which the colony enjoys. Xo other country in 
the world can take you in spacious and comfortable railway 
carriages on a track of five feet six inches gauge, over moun- 
tains at an altitude of more than six thousand feet. Yet such 
facilities are provided in Cevlon. 

In the following pages will be found described and 
illustrated the whole of the Ceylon Government Railway and 
the districts which it serves. The description is not limited 
to the various towns and villages which give their names to 
the railway stations, but is extended to those parts of the 
country which the traveller will be likely to visit by using the 
railway for the whole or part of his journey. The places are 
taken in order of stations, so that the traveller who possesses 
this book may read of each place or district as he passes 
through it. It will, however, be useful first to take a glance 
at the following general description of the various lines and 
the rules and regulations which have been made for the comfort 
and convenience of passengers. The traveller who will take 
the trouble to do this will find himself amply repaid bv the 
various facilities of which he may avail himself, but of the 
existence of which he might otherwise be ignorant. 



The Railway The Ceylon Government Railway is State owned as its 

name implies and is under the control of the Ceylon Govern- 
ment. The total mileage at present open is 576 miles, of which 
509 are on the broad gauge (5 ) 2 feet) and 67 on the narrow 
gauge (2% feet). 

The sections of the broad gauge line are the Main, Coast, 
Negombo, Northern and Matale lines. The narrow gauge 
are the Kelani Valley and the Udapussellawa lines. A new 
broad gauge section from Madawachchi to Talaimannar and 
a narrow gauge section from Avisawella to Ratnapura are at 
present under construction. 

Mam line The Main Line runs from Colombo in a north-easterly 

direction for about forty-five miles, when after Polgahawela 
has been reached it gradually winds south-eastwards until, at 
the terminus of Bandarawela (ifio 1 ^ miles), it is in the same 
latitude as Colombo. This line is by far the busiest and most 
profitable of the sections, due to the fact that it serves the 
great tea districts of the mountain zone. It was the first 
section of the railway to be constructed, and in its later stages, 
after the foot-hills are reached at Rambukkana (fifty-two 
miles from Colombo), will be found the chief engineering 
triumphs of the line. From Rambukkana the line rises 1,400 
feet in the thirteen miles to Kadugannawa with a ruling 
gradient of 1 in 45 and curves of 10 chains (220 yards) radius. 
The " ghat " or hill-section may be said to begin at 
Nawalapitiya, the principal railway centre of the hill districts, 
eighty-seven miles from Colombo, and 1,913 feet above sea 
level. From this point the line rises almost continually with 
a maximum gradient of 1 in 44 and minimum curves of 5 
chains (no yards) radius until it reaches a height of 6,225 f eet 
at Pattipola, 139 miles from Colombo. From this point, after 
passing through the summit-level tunnel, the line falls by 
similar gradients and curves to Bandarawela, its present 

Coastline The Coast Line follows the west coast in a southerly 

direction to Galle (71^4 miles) and thence, still along the coast, 
in an easterly direction, to its terminus at Matara (98 % miles 
from Colombo). 

The Negombo Branch leaves the main line at Ragama 
(9 miles from Colombo), and runs northwards through 
cinnamon and coconut estates to the seaside town of Negombo 
(i4 T 2 miles from Ragama). 

The Northern Line, one of the sections of the railway 
most recently completed, extends from its junction with the 
main line at Polgahawela (45^2 miles from Colombo) to 
Kankesanturai in the extreme north of the island, its distance 
from Polgahawela being 211*^ miles. 

Miliars The Matale Branch extends northwards for 21 miles from 








Peradeniya junction (70)2 miles from Colombo on the main 
line) to Matale, which was the starting point for the long 
coach journey to the north prior to the construction of the 
Northern line. Kandy is situated on this branch, 74^ miles 
from Colombo and nearly four miles from Peradeniya junction. 

The Kelani Valley Line runs eastward from Colombo for A'e/am 
4724 miles and serves the tea planting district from which it "' " y 
takes its name. 

The Udapussellawa Line runs from Nanuoya (128 miles udapmsellawa 
from Colombo) to Ragalla, a distance of 19 miles, and upon l '" e 
it is situated Nuwara Eliya, the sanitarium of Ceylon, 6,200 
feet above sea level and 63 miles from Nanuoya. This 
branch is very similar to the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway 
of India, with a maximum gradient of 1 in 24 and minimum 
curves of So feet radius. 

The rolling stock of the railway is now constructed locally T i ie ro n; nj , 
in the workshops in Colombo, where over 1,000 workmen siock 
are employed under the superintendence of skilled European 
foremen. These shops are well equipped with pneumatic 
and other labour-saving machinery, whilst new tools are being 
added year by year. The older type of four-wheeled carriages 
were imported from England and erected in the colony, and 
there are still a good many of these on the line, but they are 
being steadily replaced by the standard type of bogie carriage 
forty-two feet long. These modern carriages, which are 
constructed of teak, are not of the Indian type, with its 
longitudinal seats, but of the English pattern, and are furnished 
with excellent lavatory accommodation. The outsides of the 
carriages are of varnished teak, whilst the interiors are of the 
same wood polished, picked out with satinwood and adorned 
with photographs of interesting places on the line. The line is 
well provided with sleeping and refreshment cars, the former 
running on the up and down night mail trains between Colombo 
and Nanuoya (for Nuwara Eliya), whilst the latter are run on 
the principal trains between Colombo, Kandy and up-country 

Passengers to whom time is an object, and who wish to sleeting cars 
pay a flying visit to Nuwara Eliya, can leave Colombo after 
dinner, travel in a comfortable sleeping berth for the nominal 
sum of Rs. 2.50 (in addition to first-class fare), get an early 
tea or breakfast in the refreshment car before arriving at 
Nanuoya, and be in Nuwara Eliya before half-past eight next 
morning. In the opposite direction they can also make the 
night journey down between dinner one evening and breakfast 
the next morning, early tea being served by the attendant in 
the sleeping car. 

The catering for the refreshment cars is in the hands of a Catering 
private company, and meals can be obtained along the road in 


Railway comfort and at moderate prices, without the inconvenience and 

regulations ] oss f t [ me involved by the Indian system of " refreshment 
stops. " 

On the Northern line, where the traffic is too light for the 
running of a refreshment car, the through trains halt at 
Anuradhapura a sufficient length of time to enable passengers 
to obtain a satisfactory mid-day meal. 

In addition to the refreshment cars, the car company pro- 
vide breakfast, tiffin and dinner baskets on application, either 
from their depots in Colombo, Polgahawela and Hatton, or 
from the refreshment cars. 

There are three classes on the railways as in England, and 
the fares charged are exceedingly moderate. 

On all parts of the line, except the Hill section above 
Nawalapitiya, the standard single fare per mile is as follows, 
viz. first-class, 8 cents; second-class, 5*3 cents; third-class, 
2 2 /z cents; and return tickets at a fare and a half are issued 
for all classes. 

Taking 6 cents as equalling one penny, the rate per mile 
for a first-class return ticket in the lower sections is one penny 
or the equivalent of the third-class fare in England. 

Colombo time is observed throughout the railway system. 

The Ceylon Currency is as follows : — 

English sovereign = rupees 15. 

,, half-sovereign = rupees ""so. 
Rupee (silver = is. 4CI.) = 100 cents, 
qo cents (silver) 

25 .- ( ... ) 
5 ,, (nickel, square with rounded corners) 
1 ,, (copper) 
Luggage The following is the free allowance of luggage per adult passenger, 

viz. : — First class, 112 lbs. ; second class, 84 lbs. ; third class, 56 lbs. 

For children with half tickets, half the above is allowed free. 

Children travelling free (viz., under 3 years of age) are not allowed 
any free quantity of luggage. 

Excess luggage is charged for at full parcels rates, which should be 
prepaid at the starting station, but if not charged for there, the excess 
may be collected at the end of the journey or at any intermediate point. 
A receipt should be obtained for all excess charges. 

Luggage in bulk can be forwarded at goods rates, which are obtainable 
on application to any stationmaster. 

Passengers are advised to be at the starting station in good time in 
order to admit of their luggage being weighed, labelled, and loaded in 
the train before starting time. 

The luggage must be well secured and properly addressed with the 
owner's name and destination, in addition to the railway destination label, 
which passengers should personally see affixed to the packages. It is 
necessary for passengers to obtain and produce their tickets before their 
luggage can be labelled. Where numbered luggage receipts are issued, 
it is necessary that these should be produced on arrival at destination' 
before the luggage can be delivered up. 

Care should be taken to remove all old labels from luggage, especially 
those for previous journeys on the C.G.R. 


Passengers should be careful to comply with these regulations, failing Railway 
which the railway will not be responsible for any loss or miscarriage. regu a 10n> 

Passengers may take into the carriages (at their own risk and in their Packages in 
own charge) only such small packages as can be placed under the seat carnages 
occupied by the owner, or on the hat-racks (where provided). Articles 
may not be placed in the gangways of carriages or entrances to lavatories. 

Passengers are earnestly requested to adhere to this rule, so as to 
prevent discomfort not only to themselves, but to their fellow passengers. 

The railway will not be responsible for any loss of or damage to the Responsibility 
following articles if conveyed as luggage, viz. : — Musical instruments, f "]^'"? ot 
plate, bullion, money, bills, deeds, notes or securities, precious stones, damage to 
jewellery, trinkets, watches, clocks, china, glass, or other frail or fragile luggage 
articles. Such articles will only be conveyed as parcels, and they must 
be insured as shown below. 

The liability of the railway for loss of or damage to passengers' 
luggage conveyed free is limited to Rs. 150 for first-class passengers, 
Ks. 100 for second-class passengers, and Rs. 50 for third-class passengers, 
unless the value is declared and an insurance charge of 1 per cent, on 
the excess value is paid before the luggage is deposited. 

Should passengers wish to leave their luggage at any station, they can Left Ivggagc 
do so on paying the cloak-room fee of ro cents per article for two days, 
and 5 cents per article for every additional day or part of a day. 
Bicycles are charged 25 cents each for first two days, and 10 cents for 
every additional day. A receipt must be obtained, which must be pro- 
duced before the articles can be given up again. Railway servants are 
strictly forbidden to take charge of any article belonging to passengers 
unless it is deposited in the cloak-room and a receipt obtained for it, 
as stated above. 

Any property of passengers found in the carriages, at the stations, or Lost luggage 
on the line, will be removed to the nearest station for twenty-four hours, 
after which it will be forwarded to the lost-property office in Colombo, 
and if not claimed within three months it will be sold. 

Should any passenger lose any article he should inform the guard of 
the train and the nearest stationmaster, and also report the loss as soon 
as possible to the Traffic Superintendent in Colombo, in order that imme- 
diate steps may be taken to trace the missing property. 

In cases where passengers are responsible for the loss of anv article, 
a small fee will be charged and satisfactory evidence of ownership 
demanded before the article is delivered up. 

Passengers who wish to secure the exclusive use of a compartment or Reserved 
carriage can do so on payment of the following charges, viz. : — First class, accommodation 
two-thirds of the seating capacity of the carriage or compartment re- 
served ; second class, three-quarters ; third class, four-fifths. 

To reserve a full compartment in the sleeping car, a first-class ticket 
and sleeping-car ticket must be taken for each berth in the compartment. 

Accommodation for invalids and through carriages can be arranged on invalid 
application to the General Manager, Colombo. accommodation 

Compartments for the use of ladies and young children only, will be and through 
provided without extra charge on the through trains on notice being given 
on the previous day to the stationmaster at the station from which the 
compartment is required. 

The sleeping-cars which run on the up and down night mail trains y/, r /,/„ 
between Colombo and Nanuoya are provided with accommodation for 
twelve passengers, namely, two four-berth and two two-berth compart- 
ments, and lavatory accommodation. Each berth is numbered and pro- 
vided with pillows, sheets, blankets and quilt, and an attendant accom- 
panies each car. 

The charge for each berth in the sleeping-car is Rs. 2.50 in addition 
to the ordinary first-class fare for the distance to be travelled. A sleeping- 


Compartnn tits 
tor la/lies 


Railway car ticket must be purchased for each berth before the car is entered, and 

regulations it must be delivered to the car attendant. 

Children under twelve years of age accompanying adults may occupy 
sleeping berths on payment of half ordinary first-class fare plus full cost 
of a sleeping-car ticket, and two or more children may occupy the same 
berth with one sleeping-car ticket. 

Application for berths must be made not later than 6.30 p.m. at any 
station on the line, but payment will not be accepted nor accommodation 
provided until it has been ascertained that berths are available. 

One two-berth compartment in each saloon, with lavatory adjoining, 
nun.bered 1 and 2, is reserved for ladies, but if this compartment is not 
booked by 6.30 p.m. it will be available for married couples, and if dis- 
engaged at the time the train is due to start it will be given to gentlemen 

Ladies travelling alone are allowed to occupy this ladies' compart- 
ment only. 

The other two-berth compartment (which is provided with jug, basin, 
&c.) is suitable for married couples, but it is not reserved for this purpose, 
and is given to the first applicants. The berths in it are numbered 3 
and 4. 

Ayahs are only allowed in the sleeping-car when the full compart- 
ment is paid for. 
Refreshment The refreshment cars are first-class carriages, and second-class passen- 

ears gers are only allowed to enter them for the purpose of obtaining refresh, 

ments, nor may they remain in the cars for more than one of the advertised 

Dogs and luggage may not be taken into refreshment cars under any 

Smoking is only permitted when passengers are not taking meals, and 

then only with the consent of all other passengers in the car. 

Refreshment Refreshment rooms exist at Colombo (Maradana Junction), Polga- 

racms ' hawela, Hatton. and Nanuoya on the Main line, Alutgama on the Coast 

line, and Anuadhapura and Vavuniya on the Northern line. 

Refreshments at these places are provided at moderate prices. The 
guard of the through Northern line trains will wire free of charge for 
the provision of midday meals at Anuradhapura. 

Passengers from the Bandarawela line by the down night mail can 
have dinner ordered at Nanuoya by wire free of charge on application to 
the guard. 
Special traim A special train can be provided from Colombo to Kandv and back on 

payment of a minimum charge of \o first-class return fares (Rs. 9 is the 
first-class return fare) on application to the General Manager, Colombo. 
Steamer passengers wdio have sufficient time for a journey to Kandy 
during the stay of their boat in Colombo can arrange for a special through 
the steamer agents. The run takes a little over three hours each way. 

For other special trains the charge is Rs. 4 per mile for a single, and 
Rs. 6 per mile for a return journey, plus fares and luggage at ordinary 
rates for the passengers and luggage conveyed. The mileage will be 
calculated from the nearest station from which an engine can be supplied ; 
and the minimum charge for running a special is Rs. 50. 

Applications for specials should be made to the General Manager not 
less than twenty-four hours before the special is required, and no 
guarantee can be given that it will be provided. 

The booking offices will be open for the issue of tickets half an hour 
before the advertised time for the departure of trains, and may be closed 
five minutes before the departure time. 

In order to prevent inconvenience and delav, passengers are requested 
to provide themselves with suitable change, as "the booking clerks may not 
at all times be able to give change. Passengers should also examine their 


tickets and change before leaving the booking "ounter, as errors cannot Railway 
afterwards be rectified. regulations 

The English sovereign and half-sovereign aie accepted at all booking 
offices, their equivalents being Rs. i c; and Rs. 7.50. 

Tickets are not transferable, and must be produced or delivered up Tickets 
whenever demanded by the railway servants. 

Single journey tickets are only available on the day of issue, or by 
a through train starting on the day of issue. 

First- and second-class return tickets for distances 10 miles and under 
are available for return within three days, inclusive of the day of issue 
and day of return {i.e., a ticket issued on Monday is available for return 
not later than Wednesday). Tickets for distances over 10 miles and up 
to and including 30 miles are available for return within seven days, 
inclusive of the day of issue and day of return, and tickets for distances 
over 30 miles are available for 30 days inclusive of the day of issue and 
day of return. 

For the convenience of tourists, Messrs. Thos. Cook & Sons have 
authority to issue coupons over the C.G.R. These are subject to the 
same conditions as ordinary tickets, but are available for two months and 
for break of journey where required. 

Passengers desirous of travelling beyond the station to which they have 
booked must, before passing that station, hand their tickets to the guard, 
who will see to the collection of the excess fare at the proper point, but 
under no circumstances can the advantage of a return ticket be obtained 
by payment of excess fare. Passengers cannot be rebooked at roadside 
stations to proceed by the train in which they have arrived. 

Holders of first- and second-class return tickets between stations over Break cf 
30 miles apart are allowed to break their journey at an intermediate i"" r "0' 
station once on the outward and once on the homeward route, provided 
that they do not travel more than once in each direction over the same 
section of the line, and that the return journey is completed within the 
time for which the return ticket is available. "When passengers avail 
themselves of this privilege, they must on alighting from the train, 
produce their ticket to the stationmaster, who will endorse it ' L Broke 

journey at " (the name of the station being inserted) and initial 

and date the endorsement. Passengers holding first- and second-class 
return tickets between any stations 30 miles apart, of which Peradeniya 
Junction is an intermediate station, may travel into Kandy and break 
journey tfiere without paying excess fare between Peradeniya Junction 
and Kandy in either direction. In this case the tickets must be endorsed 
by the stationmaster at Kandy. 

Holders of first- and second-class return tickets between Matale line 
stations and stations beyond Kandy, but less than 60 miles apart, are 
allowed to break journey at Kandy provided they resume their journey 
the same day. Such tickets must be endorsed by the stationmaster at 
Kandy before the passengers leave the station premises. 

Children under three years of age will be conveyed free. Children of ChiLhcn 
that age and under 12 years will be charged half fare. 

One female servant only will be allowed to accompany her mistress in Female servant 
a first-class carriage (whether in charge of children or not) on payment and nurses 
of second-class fare, provided such an arrangement does not interfere 
with the comfort of other passengers travelling in the same compartment. 
Nurses in charge of children, when not accompanying their mistresses, 
must pay the fare of the class in which they travel. 

Should a passenger, from an unavoidable cause, be unable to obtain Travelling- 
a ticket before starting, he must as soon as possible report the fact to the without ticket 
guard, and pay his fare at the destination station, or earlier if demanded. 
A passenger travelling without a ticket, or with a ticket so torn or 
mutilated that the date, number of station from or to, cannot be de- 


Railway ciphered, is liable to be charged from the station from which the train 

regulations originally started, unless he can prove satisfactorily that he entered the 

train at some intermediate station. 
Excess fares Passengers who are called upon to pay excess fares should demand and 

obtain a receipt for the amount paid. 
Extension oj Passengers who are unable to use the homeward halves of ordinary 

*' cktt * return tickets within the specified time can have them extended on appli- 

cation at the station from which they are returning, and on payment of 
the necessary extra sum. 
special terms Special terms are granted to pleasure parties consisting of not less 

to parties of than io persons travelling by ordinary trains between stations not less 

travellers than 25 miles apart, and also to other special parties. Full particulars 

of the charges and regulations can be obtained on application to the 
General Manager, Colombo. 
Telegrams The travelling public are allowed to despatch telegrams through the 

Railway telegraph department at the rates of the Post Office telegraph 
department, provided they are bottd fide from a passenger or to a pas- 
senger travelling by tram. At certain stations ordinary postal messages 
are also dealt with. The Post Office rates are as follows : — First ten 
words, 25 cents ; each additional two words or less, 5 cents. 

The name and address of the addressee must be paid for, and also 
that of the sender if included in the body of the telegram and signalled. 

Though ever}' effort will be made to ensure quick despatch and correct 
delivery of telegrams, the railway will not be responsible for delay or 

Any person requiring to send a telegram relative to parcels, luggage, 
&c, such as requests for re-addressing, &c, will be charged 50 cents for 
such telegram, and a further sum of 25 cents if a reply is required. 
Should it be found that the telegram was necessitated by the fault of an}' 
member of the railway staff, the amount paid will be refunded. 

Passengers who may have left articles on the station premises or in 
the carriage in which they have travelled, and who wish inquiries made 
by wire, will be required to pay 25 cents for telegram of inquiry and 2^ 
cents for reply. If, however, the articles lost were booked and placed on 
the van, inquiry will be made by wire without charge. 
Ammunition Only safety breech-loading cartridges may be despatched by passenger 

train, and they are charged for at ordinary prepaid parcels rates, pro- 
vided they are packed in a box, barrel, or case of wood, metal, or other 
solid material of such strength that it will not become defective or in- 
secure whilst being conveyed. 
Horses, car- lne rates and regulations for the conveyance of horses, carriages, 

ria^es, motor motor vehicles, parcels, and petrol by passenger train, may be obtained on 
vehicles, parcels application to any stationmaster. 

Small animals, such as cats, puppies, mongooses, monkeys, mousedeer, 

Small animal &c, and poultry and other kinds are only carried in strongly-made square 

and poultry crates or hampers, and they are charged for by weight at parcels rates. 

T)„ rs Dogs in crates, cases, or bankers will be charged for by weight at 

parcels rates : when in dog-locker, 2^ cents each for every 25 miles or part 

of 2^ miles. 

Dogs for conveyance in the dog-locker must be provided with chain 
and leather or metal collar in good order, unless a letter of indemnity 
is furnished. 

Xo person is allowed to take a dog into a passenger carriage except 
with the consent of the stationmaster at the starting station and the con- 
currence of his fellow-passengers, and then only on prepayment of double 
rate for each dog. 

The acceptance of a dog at the double rate for carriage with the owner 
is subject to the condition that it shall be removed if subsequently objected 
to, no refund being given. 



d dangerous 

The railway will not be responsible for the loss of or injury to any dog Railway 
which may escape either in consequence of its becoming unmanageable, regulations 
slipping its collar, or by the breakage of the cram or collar by which ;t 
is secured. 

Bicycles (not packed), other than motor bicycles, when sent as parcels Bicycles 
or carried as passenger luggage, will be conveyed at owner's risk at i 
cent per mile over the Main, Coast, and branch lines below Nawalapitiya, 
and 2 cents per mile over the Main line and branches above Nawalapitiya. 
Minimum charge, 25 cents. 

The railway will not undertake to convey the following articles as 
parcels, viz. : — Gunpowder, fireworks, vitriol, aquafortis, turpentine, 
matches, mineral oils or acids, or any other combustibles or dangerous 
materials. Any person contravening this regulation will be liable to 
prosecution under the Railway Ordinances. 

The charge for insurance of articles conveyed by passenger train 
(which must be prepaid) is 1 per cent, on the value (minimum charge, 
R. 1), to be declared in writing at the time of booking. 

Stationmasters arc authorised to accept insurance rate on packages 

valued at less than Rs. 500. For articles valued at or above that sum, 

application for insurance is to be made to the General Manager, Colombo. 

Cheques or other orders for payment of money are not accepted unless 

authorised by the General Manager. 

Information regarding the conveyance of articles at goods rates may 
be obtained on application to any stationmaster or to the General Manager, 
Traffic Superintendent, or Goods Agent, Colombo. 

The railway will not be responsible for information given by others 
than the principal officers in charge of the different stations, of whom 
inquiries should always be made, or of the General Manager, Traffic 
Superintendent, or District Superintendents. 

Passengers are requested to report direct to the General Manager, /«, 
Traffic Superintendent, or District Superintendents any instance of in- 
civilitv, want of attention or misconduct on the part of persons employed 
on the railway. Complaints should embody the name and address of the 

Railway servants are forbidden to ask for or receive from the public Gratuities 
any fee or gratuity. 









(Broad Gauge). 






Above Sea 


Above Sea 












Colombo (Maradana 




Junction for Coast 





and Kelani Valley 

Nawalapitiya . 

. 87 














Watawala . 









■ 103 



Ragama (Junction 


. IoS 



for Negombo Line) 



J 3 

Kotagala . 

1 1 1 








■ "5 







Watagoda . 




Mirigama . 




Nanuoya (June 






for Nuwara E 






and Uda Pusscl- 

Polgahawela (Junc- 

Iawa Lines) . 

. 128 



tion for Northern 

Ambawela . 

■ 117 







Pattipola . 








Ohiya . 

- M3 



Kadugannawa . 




Kaput ale . 

■ 153 



Peradeniya (Junction 


. 156 


43 6 7 

for Kandy and 


. 160 



Matale Line) 





N EGO 11 BO 

LINE (Broad Gauge). 


NE (Broad 












m. c. 

f unction) 

Kanclana .....20 



Ja-ela ...... 4 

Pettah* ... 1 


S i d u wa Roa d . . . . 7 7 




Katunayake . . . 10 45 

Slave 1 sland 



Nebombo . . . .1441 

Kollupitiya . 



MATALE LINE (Broad Gauge). 




til 1 1 cage H ei glit 

Wellawatta *. 



from Above Sen 




P eradcmya Level . 

Mount Lavinia 



] unction. 


1 1 


m. c. Feet. 




Peradeniya (New) . 40 1572 





3 70 1 DO 2 





4 71 I7 26 




7 -5 IS 3-4 

Kalutara, North 




it 33 1620 

Kalutara, South 




17 5 j 1292 





2IO 1 2oS 

Paiyagala, North 




Paiyagala, South 



(Narrow Gauge). 




Mileage 1 1 eight 




from Above Sea 

Alutgama (for Bcntota) 



Nan /toy a Level. 




] unction. 




m. c. Feet. 




Nuwara Eliya . . 6 45 619S 




Kandapola . . . 12 33 63 1 6 

Hikkaduwa . 



Brookside . . . 16 45 4981 

D d a n d u w a 



Ragalla . . .1917 5818 

Gin tot a 



Galle .... 

7 1 



Talpe .... 

7 s 

2 3 



S 4 




S 9 






Pol gahawela 




J unction. 

* These two stations will 

shortly be 

m. c. 

amalgamated in a new " Fort " station 

Potuhera ■ ■ • • ■ 7 53 

about midway between the existing 


13 IS 



. 19 iS 



26 39 

(Narrow Gauge). 


40 3 



47 21 




53 4o 



7i 75 



8l 2! 


to 71 ) . 


97 31 




111 77 

Cotta Road ..... 2 



140 21 



5 2 


163 6 




Elephant Pass ( 


ng plac 

Ilomagama . 


2 3 


168 71 



Pallai . 

1/6 54 





185 77 





190 41 





195 7i 

A visa-well a . 




2on 24 





2n6 14 





211 IS 




MANNAR LINE (Broad Gauge). 


INF. (Narrow Gauge). 

(Still under construction.) 

(Still under construction.) 








m. c. 



Cheddikulam . . . . 13 

Getahctta ... .4 

M u r u n k a n 


Kendangamu w a . 



Mannar .... 



l 3 


Pesalai ..... 



J 9 


Talaimannar (for 









The starting point for the Main Line until recently was 
the " Terminus " Station, namely, the terminus of the 
original "Colombo to Kandy Railway," the first section of 
which was opened in 1865. When subsequently the " Coast 
Line " was constructed, engineering difficulties precluded its 
being led through the "Terminus," and so the Junction was 
formed at Maradana, and the "Terminus" became a small 
branch of about a quarter of a mile in length. Apart from the 
inconvenience of working such a station, the growing goods 
traffic of Colombo necessitated extension of the main goods 
yard, adjoining the Terminus Station ; and after the considera- 
tion of many schemes for grappling with the problem of 
increased passenger and goods traffic in an already crowded 
locality, it was decided to make Maradana Junction the 
principal passenger station of Colombo, and to close the 
Terminus for passenger traffic, the space thus released being 
utilised for extension of the goods yards, railway workshops 
and other improvements. 

There is still preserved as a relic of old-time ideas a hand- 
some bronze sundial, erected on one of the old Terminus 
platforms in the early days of the railway, to enable railway 
men to tell the time without the expense of clocks and 

The present Maradana Junction Station, completed in 1909, 
contiasts favourably with the old-fashioned structure that 
sorely tried the temper of Colombo residents hastening to 
Nuwara Eliya for week-ends or brief holidays at Easter and 

The new station is built on modern lines. A handsome 
two-storied building provides a booking office for first and 
second class passengers (with railway offices above), and thence 
a foot-bridge leads to electric luggage lifts and to the platforms 
below, of which there are three, accommodating (besides the 
Kelani Valley narrow gauge trains) five broad gauge trains at 
a time. 

There are comfortable waiting-rooms for all classes, and 
a good refreshment room. 

At the present time both Coast and Main Line trains start 
from and finish at Maradana Junction, but on completion of the 
new " Fort" Station (probably about the beginning of 1911), 
the principal up-country trains will depart from and arrive 
at that station, thus serving the " Fort " district of Colombo 
more conveniently. 


Coast Line t H e seaside railway from Colombo to Matara affords every 
facility for visiting the villages and towns of the south coast, 
where Sinhalese life pure and simple can be seen to greater 
advantage than anywhere else in Ceylon. Here is to be found 
the purely Sinhalese section of the inhabitants of the island, 
a circumstance due to the fact that the lowlands of the south 
were not invaded by the Malabars, who in early times con- 
quered and held possession of the northern provinces for long 
periods, with the result of a considerable commixture of the 
Aryan and Dravidian races. 

The line begins at Maradana Junction in the heart of 
Colombo, and the next four stations are also in Colombo, after 
which follow four more which may be called suburban. At 
present the suburban coast line is single, and its stations are 
old-fashioned and insufficient for the heavy traffic, but the work 
of doubling the line and rebuilding the stations as far as 
Moratuwa (13m. 7c.*) is in progress, and the undertaking 
should be completed about the end of 1911. Upon leaving 
Maradana Junction the line follows the banks of the lake 
for the first two miles, when it passes under the Kollupitiya 
Road to the coast. At the end of the first mile we reach 
The Pettah (im. 6c). — This station serves the most 
densely populated portion of Colombo where the native trader 
chiefly dwells. A description of the locality which it serves has 
already been given in our account of Colombo. This station 
will shortly be closed, and the existing Pettah and Fort 
stations will be amalgamated at a new and commodious " Fort 
Station," about midway between the existing stations. 

The Fort The Fort (im, 45c). — From the platform of this station 

which we illustrate by our plate 31 there is a remarkably 
beautiful prospect. As stated above, a new Fort Station 
is under course of construction. When completed, the 
principal up-country (i.e. Main Line) trains will start from and 
terminate at the Fort. The station is largely used by the 
clerks of the European mercantile firms and the government 
offices in the Fort who live in the suburbs and in the more 
distant towns and villages to the south of Colombo. It is 
also a most convenient starting point for passengers from the 
steamships and visitors at the Grand Oriental and Bristol 
hotels, who take trips to Mount Lavinia and the various places 
of interest farther south. 

* The distances of all stations from the Maradana Station at Colombo 
are indicated in miles and chains ; there being 80 chains in a mile. 


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Slave Island (2m. 24c). — Slave Island station is situated Coast Line 
near the southern end of Galle Face and is therefore most con- slave island 
venient for the visitors of Galle Face Hotel. Near it a narrow 
channel joins that part of the lake which borders Galle Face 
to the larger stretch which reaches from Slave Island to 
Polwatte. The railway crosses the channel at the point illus- 
trated by our plate 32, and from the bridge we get the 
view in plate 33. It will be noticed that we are in 
picturesque surroundings already, and this condition will con- 
tinue for the whole ninety-eight miles of the line, increasing, if 
possible, in beauty, and never absent. We now pass beneath 
the Kollupitiya Road, and arrive upon the sea-beach just below 
the Galle Face Hotel. 

Kollupitiya (3m. 25c). — Kollupitiya station is situated Kollupitiya 
just where Green Path and Turret Road converge and reach 
the main Galle Road ; and it is therefore most conveniently 
placed for residents round and about the Victoria Park and 
Cinnamon Gardens. It also serves the populous district of 
Kollupitiya itself, which contains more bungalows of the better 
class within a given space than any other portion of Colombo. 
Many Europeans who prefer residences quite close to the sea 
live here, as do a large number of the burgher and native com- 
munities. The main road is somewhat squalid here and there 
with bazaars and various detached boutiques, but always beau- 
tiful by reason of the flora in which the squalor is embowered. 

Bambalapitiya (4m. 45c). — Bambalapitiya is a suburb of Bambalapitiya 
Colombo with characteristics somewhat similar to Kollupitiya, 
but less densely populated, and therefore more desirable as a 
residential neighbourhood. Near the station are many exten- 
sive and luxurious bungalows. 

Wellawatta (5m. 70c). — Our illustration (Plate 35) will wellawatta 
give a good idea of the existing stations in the suburbs of 
Colombo, but a newer and better type will shortly replace 
them. It will be noticed that they border the sea very closely; 
but it must be borne in mind that there are no considerable 
tides to reckon with, the sea rising to an extent almost 
imperceptible. The heavy seas of the south-west monsoon, 
however, have not to be lost sight of, as they sometimes treat 
these stations more roughly than is good for them. In 
fact, the result of the south-west waves on the railway 
line between Colombo and Mount Lavinia has been so 
serious that the Government have had to go to large ex- 
pense in protective works to preserve the railwav, including 
the opening of a special quarry at Ragama (nine miles from 
Colombo on the main line), where huge blocks of stone arc 
conveyed to the coast and systematically packed along the edge 
of the railway by means of large cranes to stop the encroach- 
ments of the sea. The scenery around Wellawatta is notable 


for the pretty landscapes observable from the railway bridges. 
Examples are given in our plates 34 and 37. 

coast Line Dehiwala (7m. 44c). — Dehiwala, although in effect a 

Dehiwaia suburb of Colombo containing some excellent bungalows, in 

Fishingindusiry reality retains its older character of a fishing village, and the 
visitor will find it a convenient and attractive place in which to 
observe some of the quaint operations of the fishing industry 
and the remarkable fish themselves, with their curious shapes 
and beautiful colours. The number of species caught amount 
to no less than six hundred. Of those which are edible the 
one most preferred is also the most plentiful — the Seer. In 
size and shape this fish somewhat resembles the salmon, but its 
flesh is white. In flavour it is by some thought to be superior 
to salmon ; but however this may be, it is certain that few 
people tire of Seer, although it is daily served at some meal 
throughout the year. 

Fish auctions take place each day upon the sands ; and very 
interesting are they to the visitor, not only as a study of native 
life, but as an exhibition of the strangest creatures brought 
forth from the deep. Among the most curious are the saw- 
fish. These are something like sharks in the body, but the 
head has attached to it a huge flat blade, with sharp teeth pro- 
jecting on cither side. This frightful weapon in a full-grown 
fish of some twelve or fourteen feet long extends to about 
five feet in length. With it these monsters charge amongst 
shoals of smaller fish, slaying them right and left and devour- 
ing them at leisure. The saws are sold as curiosities and can 
generally be obtained in Colombo. The red fire-fish, some- 
times brought ashore, is of a remarkably brilliant hue. The 
sword-fish, the walking-fish with curious arms and legs, by 
means of which it crawls along the bottom of the sea, the dog- 
fish marked like a tiger, and various species of the ray are 
frequently caught. 

Our plate 38 shows the coast from Dehiwala to Mount 
Lavinia. Here sea turtles of great size are frequently captured. 
Bnddhht Another attractive feature of Dehiwala is the Buddhist 

Temple. Although smaller than some others within a short 
distance from Colombo it is most accessible and the plcasantest 
to visit, owing to its being clean and well kept. Within are 
to be seen huge images of Buddha, both sitting and reclining. 
Mural paintings, of the crudest character, represent various 
legends, and especially set forth the various forms of punish- 
ment in store for those who disobey the Buddhist precepts. 
Before the images offerings of flowers are heaped ; including 
lotus blossoms, temple flowers, and the blossoms of the areca 
and coconut palms. No worshipper comes empty-handed ; 
and the fragrant perfume is sometimes almost overpowering. 



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Mount Lavinia (8m. 70c). — This station takes its name Coast Line 
from the handsome marine residence which Sir Edward Barnes Mount 
built here when Governor of Ceylon in 1824. It stands upon a Lavinia 
rocky promontory washed by the waves on three sides and 
commands the finest view of coast scenery near Colombo; " an 
edifice," wrote Tennent, "in every way worthy of the great 
man by whom it was erected. But in one of those paroxysms 
of economy which are sometimes no less successful than the 
ambition of the Sultan in the fable in providing haunts for 
those birds that philosophise amidst ruins, the edifice at Mount 
Lavinia had scarcely been completed at an expense of ^,30,000 
when it was ordered to be dismantled, and the building was 
disposed of for less than the cost of the window frames." 
This once vice-regal villa long since became the Mount Lavinia 
Grand Hotel, and as such it has a world-wide reputation. It is 
a favourite rendezvous of ocean passengers, but its greater use- 
fulness is in the opportunities it presents to residents inland 
who from time to time need a change to sea air. At Mount 
Lavinia that desideratum is available under the pleasantest pos- 
sible conditions. The recreations of sea-bathing, fishing, tennis 
and billiards are all at hand, while the situation is romantic and 
picturesque. Our illustrations show the position of the hotel, 
the bathing accommodation and the railway station. 

Bathers are undisturbed by the presence of sharks, as the Bathing- at 
reef and rocks keep out these voracious monsters and render Mo ' int Laxmm 
the bathing quite safe and enjoyable. The temperature of the 
water being about 85 F. the luxury can be indulged in ad 
libitum. Another boon to the inland resident who visits Mount 
Lavinia is the plentiful supply of fresh fish and the " fish 
tiffins " and " fish dinners " for which the hotel is noted. In 
our view of the railway station there will be noticed some 
barracks on the left which were until recently used as a 
sanitarium for troops ; but since the adoption of Diyatalawa for 
this purpose they have fallen into disuse. 

The railway station is shortly to be enlarged in connection Railway 
with the doubling of the line. There is an ample train service facilities 
to and from Colombo. Besides the hotel the station serves the 
village of Galkissa, which has a population of about 5,000. 

No horse carriages are available for hire ; but bullock R»*d 
hackeries can be obtained at rates of 50 cents a mile for "" lr£ ^" r '" : < ! 
Europeans and 25 cents for natives. 

Amongst the local products are coconuts, cinnamon and Local products 
native vegetables. Fish is the only commodity sent by rail. 

Lace, bamboo tats (shade blinds), bullock carts, curiosities Manufactures 
and carved furniture are all manufactured in the village of 

Snipe shooting can be had in season within a mile of the sport 

4 o 


Coast Line 








Local products 


Angulana (nm. 22c). — Angulana is a village of about 
1,000 inhabitants. Its local manufactures are limited to 
buttons and walking sticks. Coconuts, betel and cinnamon 
are its chief agricultural products. The Anglicans, Wesleyans 
and Roman Catholics each have churches and schools in the 
village. The station is small and its business limited to 
passengers and the despatch of about ten tons of fish per week 
to Colombo. It will shortly be rebuilt. 

Lunawa (12m. 5c). — Lunawa is a village of about 1,800 
inhabitants, almost entirely Sinhalese. The coconut is its 
chief product of the soil, and its manufactures are limited to 
furniture and general carpentry work. The main Colombo- 
Galle Road runs parallel with the railway at a distance of half 
a mile from the station. The Prince of Wales' College for 
boys, an extensive and successful institution founded by the 
munificence of the late Mr. C. H. de Soysa, is situated here. 
It is affiliated to the Calcutta University, and has proved of 
immense benefit to the adjoining large and populous town of 
Moratuwa. The station here will also shortly be rebuilt. 

Passengers will find a rest-house close to the station, where 
food can be obtained without any previous notice. Good buggy 
carts and hackeries drawn by single bulls can also be obtained 
by those who desire to explore the neighbourhood. 

Moratuwa (13m. 7c). — Moratuwa, which with its adjoin- 
ing village contains a population of 30,000, is an exceedingly 
picturesque town. Its inhabitants apply themselves chiefly to 
one calling — that of carpentry. The visitor who wishes for 
a glimpse of native life pure and simple may obtain it here 
amidst the pleasantest surroundings. 

The railway station is in the town and possesses a ladies' 
waiting-room in addition to the usual waiting-hall. There is 
no refreshment-room ; but quite near the station is the Reliance 
Hotel where food can be obtained without previous arrange- 
ment, both for Europeans and natives. It has also sleeping 
accommodation to the extent of seven double bed-rooms. Horse 
carriages, buggy carts and hackeries can be readily obtained 
near the station. Particularly nice hackeries can be hired at 
very moderate rates, and are most convenient for visiting the 
various interesting spots. 

The chief agricultural products are coconuts, cinnamon 
and betel. A large quantity of arrack is distilled here, of which 
some 250 tons are sent off by rail during the course of the 
year. Plumbago mining is carried on to some extent in the 
neighbourhood, and an average of about ten tons per month 
is despatched by rail. 

The local manufactures, in addition to furniture of every 
description, are carriages, tea-chests and lace. The tea-chests 
despatched by rail average about sixty tons a month. 




►-■flnP"* '*. J^MftfHll 




■«&- ■ 


~- * "■"■"i™ 

J-s. the hackery 







4 2 


The hackery which we illustrate by plate 46 is the genuine 
Moratuwa article and was photographed near the station. 
We disport ourselves in this, dangling our legs at the back 
as the driver dangles his in front. Our steed is a smooth- 
skinned little bull with a hump above his shoulders with which 
he draws the car by pressing against the cross-bar affixed to 
the shafts. The hackery is essentially the carriage of the middle- 
class native. The whole turn-out may cost from £2 to ^,7 
or £8, according to the age and quality of the bull and quality 
of the car. The upkeep amounts to little, while the cost of 
fodder is a very few shillings per month. So it will be evident 
that the hire to be paid by the passenger is not a ruinous 
sum ; but however little, it should be agreed upon at the start — 
50 cents or 8d. an hour would be the approximate charge; but 
there is no fare fixed by local ordinance in the out-stations 
and villages. Upon turning from the station road the bazaar 
with its gabled roofs illustrated by plate 47 will attract 
attention. Thence we should drive on to the toll-bar (Plate 
48), and leaving our little car stroll on to the bridge which 
crosses the Panadure River (Plate 49). Here will be noticed 
many quaint scenes, not the least interesting being the 
manipulation of the extensive but frail-looking bamboo rafts 
used by the natives for river traffic (Plate 50). A drive 
along the Galle-Colombo Road in the direction of Lunawa will 
afford considerable interest, and afterwards a look around the 
various furniture factories, winding up the excursion with a 
row upon the extensive and beautiful lake. The primitive 
methods of the carpenters, who construct their own tools and 
employ their toes as well as their fingers in their work, will 
strike the visitor as a strange contrast to Western methods. 

The European visitor is sure of a welcome and everything 
is open to his inspection. His presence is always an occasion 
of great interest and amusement to the non-workers, and 
especially the children, who flock around him and wonder at 
the curiosity which he exhibits in their parents' occupations. 

Parties of Europeans not infrequently visit Moratuwa to be 
entertained by the carpenters, who upon short notice decorate 
one of their timber boats and place it at the disposal of the 
party. By this means the many interesting places on the banks 
of the great lagoon may be reached. 

A large estuary, unaffected by tides, which, as has been 
before remarked, are almost non-existing on this coast, pro- 
vides Moratuwa with its extensive and ornamental lagoon. Its 
charm as a pleasure resort is all too little recognised by the 
residents of Colombo ; but that it is so used may be seen from 
our photographs (Plates 53 to 57). The best method of 
arranging a day's picnic is to make up a considerable party; 
hire two of the large flat-bottomed boat=- roofed with plaited 


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fronds of the coconut palm, as seen in our illustrations, the one 
for the party and the other for commissariat and attendants ; 
to accompany these hire also a couple or more small out- 
rigger canoes. 

It will be observed that Moratuwa is within the region of 
cultivated cinnamon. In our peregrinations we shall have 
noticed large gardens of this renowned laurel, which still 
attracts cultivators even to an extent almost inducing over- 
production. Indeed the supply is so fully equal to the demand 
that the profit now obtainable by its cultivation is insufficient 
to attract the European investor. We cannot here afford space 
to trace the history of this interesting product from the time 
when Moses was commanded to take 250 shekels of cinnamon 
as part of the ingredients for the manufacture of holy anointing 
oil for consecration purposes. Where the cinnamon of Moses 
was grown is a matter of some doubt ; but the tree is regarded 
by the highest authorities as indigenous to Ceylon where the 
situation and climate are so exactly suited to it that none so fine 
and delicately aromatic has been found elsewhere. It has been 
referred to by many ancient classical writers and always re- 
garded as a greatly prized luxury — a gift for kings. In the 
markets of early times it can only have existed in small 
quantities, for we find the price paid in ancient Rome to have 
been the equivalent of £8 sterling per pound weight. Its 
cultivation is not referred to, and there seems to have been an 
impression even so late as the middle of the seventeenth century 
that cinnamon was only good when allowed to grow in a wild 
state. The cinnamon of commerce flourishes only in a small 
portion of Ceylon, near the coast, from Negombo twenty miles 
north of Colombo to Matara at the extreme south of the island. 
Where it grows the air is moist, the rainfall copious and 
frequent, and the soil dry and sandy on the surface with a 
stratum of richer soil beneath. Some trees are found farther 
inland in the wooded valleys that intervene between the suc- 
cessive ridges of the Kandyan mountains, but they give a 
coarser bark with a strong flavour which is not appreciated. 
Cultivation has also been tried in the Kandyan country, but 
has not resulted in any measure of success. 

The trees in an uncultivated state grow to the height of 
twenty to thirty feet, and the trunk may be three feet in 
circumference. The leaf is said to have a flavour of cloves, 
but the stalks taste very pleasantly of cinnamon. The young 
leaves are of mixed flame-colour and vellow ; after a short 
time they become of a beautiful pea-green, and upon reaching 
maturity they put on a dark olive tint. The blossoms arc 
white with a brownish tinge in the middle, and produce fruit 
in the form of an acorn but more diminutive. The trees culti- 
vated to produce the cinnamon of commerce arc not allowed to 




grow above ten feet. The branches that are lopped off to be 
barked are of about the size and thickness of an ordinary 
walking stick. The trees can be grown from seeds or shoots. 
When they are about three years old they afford one branch 
fit for cutting ; at five years they give three and at eight years 
ten branches of an inch thickness. At twelve years the tree 
is in its greatest perfection, but it will flourish for a century. 
The tree blossoms in January ; in April the fruit is ripe and 
the cutting is done from May to October. The harvest opera- 
tions are these : the Chalia * goes forth into the gardens, 
selects a tree the suitability of which he distinguishes by its 
leaves and other characteristics. When the tree is seen to bear 
fruit well it is in good health and the bark will peel without 
difficulty. To prove whether it is ripe the Chalia strikes his 
hatchet obliquely into the branch ; if on drawing it out the bark 
divides from the wood, the cinnamon has reached maturity ; 
but if not it must go on growing. The sticks are gathered by 
boys and tied into bundles with coir strings ; they are then 
carried to the peeling stores. 

The operation of peeling the sticks requires considerable 
skill. A knife with blade of copper two and a half inches long, 
something like that used by shoemakers, sharp pointed and 
slightly hooked, is employed. The peeler seated on the ground 
makes two parallel cuts up and down the length of the bark, 
which, after being gradually loosened with the point of the 
knife, he strips off in one entire slip about half the circum- 
ference of the branch. If the bark does not come away easily 
the sticks are rubbed vigorously with a round piece of hard 
wood which has the effect of loosening it. The ultimate object 
of the methods employed is to make the bark up into quills, a 
quill being a solid rod of cinnamon resembling a thin cane four 
feet in length, in which form it is exported ; the pieces of bark 
when stripped are therefore placed round the sticks both with 
a view to preserving their shape and as a convenience for the 
next operation. They are now allowed to remain for three 
to six hours, when fermentation takes place and the bark is 
ready for skinning, which process is accomplished in the follow- 
ing manner. The Chalia sits with one foot pressed against a 
piece of wood from which a round stick slopes towards his 
waist. Upon this stick he lays the slip of bark, keeps it steady 
with the other foot, and holding the handle of the knife in one 
hand and the point of it in the other, scrapes off the skin, 
which is very thin, of a brown colour on the outside and green 
within. This treatment of the bark leaves only that part which 
has the desired delicate taste ; it is of a pale yellow colour 
and a parchment-like texture. The bark is now left to ferment 

* The Chalias are a caste of low grade whose calling is that of 
cinnamon searcher and peeler. 


and dry, which if the weather be favourable takes about thirty Coast Line 
minutes. The next process is that of forming the quills. The 
smaller pieces are inserted into the larger, and both contracting 
still closer under the process of drying form solid rods. They 
are afterwards rolled into perfect shape and made up into 

Cinnamon oil is distilled from the chips and trimmings of 
the quills. Altogether there are now about forty thousand 
acres of cinnamon under cultivation in Ceylon. 

Panadure (17m. 51c). — Panadure, a town of 2,000 in- Panadure 
habitants, has many of the characteristics of Moratuwa. Its 
estuaries, which are more extensive, are dotted with islands 
that add an extra charm to the landscape. They are the 
retreats of multitudes of water-fowl and are covered with 
exquisite vegetation. The passenger should look out for the 
beautiful view from the railway bridge crossing the mouth 
of the river near the station. Quaint sights are frequently to 
be seen here, especially when the native fishermen are dis- 
porting themselves upon the piles of the fish kraals. 

The station is in the heart of the town and is provided Accommodation 
with the usual waiting-rooms. There is an hotel quite close "", 7 , y , a „ OT 
to it called the Station View Hotel, and a good rest-house 
about half a mile distant. Previous notice should be given if 
food is required. Horse carriages and bullock hackeries can 
be obtained near the station at very moderate rates. 

The chief local agricultural products are coconuts, areca Local products 
nuts, plantains, cinnamon, tea, rubber, paddy, betel and 
pepper. Arrack is distilled in great quantity and contributes 
the greater portion of the freight to the railway here, about 
eighty tons a month being despatched, and twenty-five tons 
cf vnegar. 

The visitor to Panadure will find the townspeople engaged Manufactures 
in the manufacture of tea chests, brass and silver work, 
coir rope and matting, agricultural implements, furniture and 

There are two interesting historical events that are asso- Historical 
ciated in the popular mind with Panadure. Both were battles. incld ? nts 
The first occurred in the twelfth century, when Alekeswera, a 
famous general of King Parakrama Bahu of Polonnaruwa, 
met the Indian invaders near Panadure and defeated them. 
The second belongs to the struggle for supremacy between the 
Dutch and Portuguese in the seventeenth century. Marching 
three thousand strong from Kalutara to Colombo, the Dutch 
had safely crossed the Panadure River, when their progress 
was disputed by seven hundred picked troops of the Portuguese 
who had been employed in the wars against the Kandyan 
King. The latter were surrounded and five hundred of them 


slain ; the survivors succeeded in reaching Colombo again, 
but in such sorry plight that half of them died of their 

Wild lowl in prodigious numbers, and the reptile denizens 
ol the lake, its islands and the luxuriant woods that surround 
it, provide good sport for week-end parties from Colombo. 

A most enjoyable trip may be made by coach from Pana- 
dure to Ratnapura (forty-two miles), returning by boat upon 
the Kaluganga or Black River to Kalutara (see Kalutara). 

Wadduwa (21m. 37c). — Wadduwa is a village of about 
3,000 inhabitants. It owes its name, said to be derived from 
wake, curve, and duwa, island, to the physical circumstance 
that it is surrounded by a narrow canal. The station deals only 
with passenger traffic. It is situated in the village, which is 
entirely embowered in palms. Its produce is coconuts, cinna- 
mon and betel, and its manufactures, coir rope and matting, 
and to a small extent brass work and silver and gold jewellery. 
There is no special attraction or accommodation for visitors. 

Kalutara North (26m. 6c.) and Kalutara South 
(27m. 28c). — Kalutara is a large town of considerable im- 
portance, in a beautiful situation at the mouth of the 
Kaluganga or Black River. It boasts of two railway stations 
which serve the north and south of the town respectively. One 
is on each side of the river, which is spanned by two large 
iron bridges. 

The older bridge until recently carried both the railway and 
road (as depicted in plates 60 and 61), but as it was not 
considered sufficiently strong for the more modern (and con- 
sequently heavier) engines and trains a new bridge has been 
completed in 1910 for the railway alone, and the old bridge has 
been given over entirely for road traffic. The two bridges lead 
to Kalutara South, the older and more important part of the 
town. From the old bridge we get our view (Plate 63) 
showing the quaint boats consisting of two dug-outs joined by a 
platform or deck upon which is built a house with plaited 
fronds of the coconut palm. By means of these boats the 
native trades between Kalutara and Ratnapura, the city of 
gems, about fifty miles up-river. Perhaps this is the finest 
stretch of river scenery in Ceylon ; but the visitor who wishes to 
explore it will (pending completion of the railway extension to 
Ratnapura at end of 191 1) drive to Ratnapura from Avisawella 
station on the Kelani Valley line (twenty-seven miles) or from 
Panadure station on this line (forty-two miles) and sail down 
the river to Kalutara. To go up the river by boat is a long 
and wearisome business owing to the rapidity and volume of 
the stream. 


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nga from 
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The sail down from Ratnapura to Kalutara is a perfect Coast Line 
rhapsody of delight ; the shores are resplendent with colour rlu . Kal „ 
and beauty of trees and flowers ; now a temple lifts its head 
above the foliage ; now a village encompassed by groves of 
tamarinds, jaks, talipots and kitul. Along the banks on 
either side wave the yellow stems and leathery leaves of the 
bamboos, while the broad and rippling stream bears us on its 
bosom in one long dream of loveliness for the whole fifty miles 
of our journey. 

The enjoyment of the natural beauties of Kalutara is not 
spoilt by the presence of a teeming population. The well laid 
out and park-like appearance of the town as approached from 
the southern end of the bridge gives a pleasant first impres- 
sion, and one hears without surprise that the place has enjoyed a 
great reputation as a sanitarium from the time of the Dutch, 
by whom it was held in great esteem. The remains of the 
old fort (Plate 65) which they built upon a natural eminence 
at the mouth of the river are conspicuous as we leave the 
bridge. Upon this site now stands the new residence of the 
chief Government official of the district, and immediately below 
it are the Kachcheri or Government Offices (Plate 70). The 
Anglican Church of St. John (Plate 64) comes next into view ; 
it was built in 1876 and was the first new church consecrated 
by the present Metropolitan Bishop of Calcutta when Bishop 
of Colombo. A short distance farther on we find ourselves in 
the heart of the town, where the law courts are seen on the 
right and the police station on the left embowered in glorious 
foliage (Plate 66). A new rest-house of two storeys with every 
convenience and comfort for the traveller faces the sea and 
esplanade near the law courts. It has ample accommodation 
for six visitors — six bedrooms and six bath-rooms, in addition 
to a spacious dining-room and broad verandahs. Excellent 
catering will be found, no previous notice being required here. 
There are also five native hotels in the town. Carriages can 
be obtained at the rates of one rupee (is. 4d.) for the first 
hour and 25 cents (4d.) for each subsequent hour. The charge 
for long journeys in visiting distant tea and rubber estates is 
50 cents (8d.) per mile. Bullock hackeries can be hired at 
the rate of 25 cents (4d.) per. mile. Near the rest-house is 
Kalutara South railway station. 

The Dutch houses with their double verandahs (Plate 68) 
add decidedly to the picturesqueness of the roads, which reaches 
its highest development at Kalutara. Most charming is an 
inlet of the sea which washes the embankment of the railway 
as it leaves the town. The road and rail here run along- 
side of each other. A short distance beyond the scene in 
our picture we come upon the curious and beautiful tree 
illustrated in plate 72, a fine old banyan (Ficus indica), which 






Coast Line extends to a great height and has thrown an arch across the 
road. The upper portion harbours a mass of parasitic plants 
and ferns of exuberant growth, the whole forming a lofty 
rampart of vegetation from which depend the filaments and 
aerial roots of the parent tree in graceful and dainty tracery. 
Our plate shows only the lower portion of this wonderful tree. 

We now turn off the main road and drive through the 
back streets, although that somewhat disparaging epithet is 
hardly suitable as applied to lanes where slender palms with 
sunlit crowns form a lofty canopy from which garlands hang 
in natural grace over every humble dwelling; where even the 
palm-thatched roofs are often decorated by the spontaneous 
growth of the gorgeous climbing " Neyangalla " lily. In this 
fairyland we strike the note of human interest ; for here is 
Nonahamy seated at the entrance of her dwelling engaged in 
the gentle occupation of weaving the famous Kalutara baskets. 
These dainty little articles are made in numberless shapes and 
sizes, and for a variety of useful purposes, from the betel case 
and cigar case to the larger receptacle for the odds and ends of 
madame's fancv work. Those of the ordinary rectangular sort 
are made in nests of twelve or more, fitted into one another for 
convenience in transport, and the visitor seldom comes away 
without a nest or two of these most useful and very moderately- 
priced articles. The process of manufacture is simple : 
children are sent out into the jungle to cut off the thin fibres 
from the fronds of the palm illustrated in plate 73 ; these are 
split into narrow slips and dyed with vegetable dyes black, 
yellow and red, and then woven by the skilful fingers of girls. 
Toddy and At Kalutara we are in the midst of another industry which 

'"'"" /l ' is of immense proportions and productive of a large amount 

of revenue — the distillation of arrack. We shall have noticed 
the apparent barrenness of the coconut trees in the extensive 
groves through which we have passed. This peculiarity is due 
not to the inability of the palms to produce fine fruit, but 
results from the somewhat unnatural culture, by which they 
are made to yield drink in place of food. Each tree extends 
beneath its crown of leaves a long and solid spathe in which 
are cradled bunches of ivory-like blossoms bearing the embryo 
nuts. When the branch is half shot, the toddy-drawer ascends 
the tree by the aid of a loon of fibre passed round his ankles, 
giving security to the grip of his feet, which owing to their 
innocence of shoes have retained all their primitive prehensile 
endowment, and proceeds to bind the spathe tightly in a 
bandage of young leaf ; he then mercilessly belabours it with 
a bludgeon of hard wood. This assault is repeated daily for 
a week or more till the sap begins to appear. A portion of 
the flower-stalk is then cut off, with the result that the stump 
begins to bleed. The toddy-drawer now suspends beneath each 



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maltreated blossom a small earthenware chattie or gourd to Coast Line 

receive the juice. This liquor is toddy. Day by day he ascends 

the tree and pours the liquid from the chattie into a larger 

vessel which he carries suspended from his waist. In many 

groves of coconut palms there is a network of ropes reaching 

from tree to tree ; for our drawer is a funambulist of some skill, 

and even on a slack rope he will frequently make his way 

safely to the next tree; but not always. Sometimes he falls, 

and as the ropes are from sixty to ninety feet above the ground 

the result is always fatal. The number of such accidents 

recorded annually is upwards of three hundred. " Toddy " is 

probably a corruption of the Sanscrit tari, palm liquor ; but 

doubtless a Scotsman is entitled to claim the credit of the 

application of the term in its European shape to the wine of 

his country. Toddy is in great favour amongst the natives as 

a beverage, and when taken at an earlv stage of its existence 

is said to be pleasant and wholesome ; but after fermentation 

has made progress it is intoxicating. Toddy may be regarded 

as the wine and arrack the brandy into which most of the 

former is distilled. 

The chief local products are coconuts, tea, rubber, paddy, 
betel, cinnamon, mangosteens and plumbago. There are about 
thirty plumbago mines in the district turning out upwards of 
a thousand tons a year. There are also seventeen thousand 
acres of tea and many thousands of acres of rubber. 

Katukuruxda (29m. 8c). — Katukurunda is a village of Katukurunda 
about 2,000 inhabitants who are accommodated by the railway 
with a passenger station. There is no rest-house or hotel. 
The coconut palm is the staple product, while the manu- 
factures are limited to the spinning of coir yarn, and the 
fashioning of articles of brasswork. 

Paiyagala North (31m. 16c.) and Paiyagala South (31m. Paiyagala 
75c). — Paiyagala North is simply a passenger station without 
waiting-rooms and there is no other accommodation at or near 
it. Paiyagala South is of greater importance and does a con- 
siderable business in goods as well as passengers. These 
stations serve a population of about 7,000, the inhabitants of 
a group of villages including Induruwegoda, Palevangoda, 
Kachchagoda, Gabadagoda, Pothuwila, Parranikkigoda, Goma- 
ragoda, Pahalagoda, Mahagammedda and Veragala. The 
names of the villages from which the stations take their names 
are Maha-Paiyagala to the south and Kuda-Paiyagala to the 
north. These villages are almost as picturesque as their ;,„■;„, 
names. The level crossing where the Colombo-Galle Road '"'J 
passes over the railway is a charming subject for the artist ; 
and the avenues from the station both north and south 
(Plates 76 and 78) are especially beautiful and give a very 


Coast Line good idea of the groves of palms in which these stations of 
the coast line nestle. 

Conveyances Visitors to Paiyagala should send on a servant to engage 

hackeries, which are not always in readiness here. They can 
however generally be obtained, the rate being 25 cents a mile. 

Local products Coconuts, toddy, arrack, paddy, cinnamon and areca 

nuts are the chief products. Tea and rubber are also sent to 
this station from estates a few miles distant. Fishing is an 
important industrv, and Paiyagala South supplies Colombo 
with about five tons of fish a month. Some indication of the 
occupation of the people may be gathered from a recital of the 
railway freights, which average in a year 210 tons of arrack, 
go tons of plumbago, 75 tons of timber, 40 tons of tea, 30 tons 
of copra, 50 tons of areca nuts and 10 tons of coir yarn. 
There is also a considerable trade in cabook stone for building 

Maggona Maggona (33m. ioc). — Maggona is a village of about 

3,500 inhabitants, mostly of the fisher caste. It affords no 
special attractions or accommodation for visitors. The Roman 
Catholics have made it a mission station of considerable im- 
portance, where they have a large reformatory as well as 
industrial and other schools. 

Beruwaia Beruwala (35m. 7c). — Beruwala, or Barbcryn as it is 

often called, is situated upon one of the most picturesque bits 
of coast in Ceylon. Its charming bay, always lined with quaint 
craft and busy with the operations of the fishermen (Plates 79 
and 83), extends to a headland of considerable prominence, off 
which lies the island of Welmaduwa. Here will be seen one 
of the Imperial lighthouses built in the form of a round tower 
of grey gneiss rock. The structure is 122 feet high and its 
light can be seen at a distance of nineteen miles. The traveller 
who wishes to see the beauties of the bay should make his 
way along the road shown in plate 83 and hire an outrigger 
canoe to visit the island. Should he be interested in the 
methods of fishing employed by the natives (Plate 79) this will 
prove an admirable place to watch their operations. The 
Beruwala bazaar (Plate 77) is a particularly lively one and 
ministers to a large population ; for the villages here are 
grouped rather densely together. We illustrate the railway 
station (Plate 78), which, it will be noticed, is laid out for 
both passengers and goods. 

Aiutgama Alutgama (38m. 28c). — Alutgama station serves a popu- 

lous district, and is therefore necessarily provided with con- 
siderable accommodation both for goods and passengers 
including a refreshment room. The products of the district 


despatched by rail are considerable and include plumbago, tea, Coast Line 
coral, lime and arrack. We are, however, more interested in 
the circumstance that Alutgama is the station for Bentota, a Bentota 
village blest with such beautiful surroundings that it has always 
been in favour as a quiet honeymoon resort. The rest-house 
is one of the coolest on the coast ; it is spacious, salubrious and 
prettily situated on a point of the beach where the Bentota 
River forms its junction with the sea. The opportunities for 
quiet seclusion, a table well supplied with all the luxuries of 
the province, including oysters, for which the place has a local 
renown, and the exquisite scenery of the district attract many 
visitors. But a greater attraction of the place is the river. 
Boats may be hired quite close to the rest-house. It is best 
to engage a double-canoe with platform. On this deck com- 
fortable seats, or even chairs, can be placed, and if an early 
start is made, before the sun's rays become very powerful, a 
trip of some three or four miles up the river will be found to 
be a delightful experience. Bentota lays claim to several of Antiquities 
the most ancient Buddhist Wihares in Ceylon. One of these, 
the Galapata, is situated on the south bank about three miles 
up the river, and should be visited by the tourist. It contains 
some interesting relics of earlv times, amongst them a stone 
door or window frame, said to date from the reign of Ring 
Dutthagamini, B.C. 161. The carved scrollwork upon it is the 
finest of the kind to be met with. 

Induruwa (41m. 54c). — This is the latest railway station induruwa 
opened on the coast line. It serves a population of about 
3,000, who are mostlv cultivators of coconuts, paddy, areca 
nuts, plantains, and cinnamon. There are no special attrac- 
tions for visitors. 

Rosgoda (45m. 2gc). — At Rosgoda we alight upon a Kosgoda 
platform adorned with flowering shrubs and plants of beautiful 
foliage. The village and its neighbouring hamlets contain a 
population of about 12,000, spread over an area of thirty 
square miles. There is no special accommodation for travellers 
at or near the station, but at Uragasmanhandiya, three and 
three-quarter miles inland, there is a Government rest-house, 
where two bedrooms and food supplies may be found if 
previous notice is given to the rest-house keeper. Hackeries, 
single and double bullock-carts, and horse carriages can be 
hired at Rosgoda. 

To the west of the village the land is charmingly undulated, 
and exhibits a beautiful panorama of hills interspersed with 
paddy fields. In this direction, at about the third mile, is 
Uragasmanhandiya, for some years the Volunteer Camp of 
Exercise. The site was chosen by the late Colonel Clarke 
on account of its combined features of a suitable parade and 
training ground and picturesque surroundings. 



Coast Line 

Local products 




Local products 

There are many traces of ancient civilisation in the neigh- 
bourhood, among them the ruins of an ancient Walauwa 
(native chief's residence), dating from the year 1600, besides 
about a dozen other old Walauwas. The present inhabitants 
are mostly Sinhalese and of the Salagama caste. 

Coconuts, bread fruit, areca nuts, betel, pepper, cinnamon, 
jak, citronella and rubber are all cultivated here. Copra to 
the amount of about 250 tons, cinnamon 100 tons, coir yarn 
200 tons, plumbago 60 tons, and arrack 40 tons per annum 
are despatched by rail. 

The manufactures of Kosgoda include basket-making, lace, 
silver and brass work, knives, carts, skilfully carved furniture, 
bricks, earthenware, copra, coconut oil, coir yarn, coir ropes, 
various products from the kitul palm, ekel and coir brooms, 
citronella oil, cinnamon oil and native medicines. 

From the above account it will be apparent that the visitor 
who desires acquaintance with Sinhalese life and pursuits in 
their most unsophisticated state should take advantage of the 
opportunities offered by Kosgoda. 

Balapitiya (49m. 63c). — The railway station of Balapitiya 
serves a local population of about 1,000. For the visitor 
staying at Bentota or Ambalangoda on account of sport or for 
the sake of beautiful scenery, it also provides facilities for 
exploring the shores and islands of the extensive lagoon that 
lies at its feet. This grand stretch of water, flanked by 
mountain scenery, and dotted with a hundred islets, ranks 
very high amongst the many natural beauties of the southern 
province. It is but three miles from Ambalangoda and eleven 
from Bentota, and, thanks to the railway, is so easy of access 
that it should be visited by all tourists who stay at the rest- 
houses of those places. 

Ambalangoda (52m. 62c). — Ambalangoda invites the 
European resident in Ceylon and the visitor alike as a pleasant 
seaside place where good accommodation and excellent food 
can be obtained, and where the rare luxury of bathing in the 
open sea can be enjoyed in perfect security. 

The Resthouse is one of the most comfortable of its kind and 
possesses eight bedrooms. The spacious enclosure surround- 
ing slopes to the coast, where a natural barrier of rocks at 
once protects the bather from the attacks of sharks and pre- 
vents him from being carried out to sea by dangerous currents. 
Our illustration (Plate 85) will give the reader some idea of 
the natural features of the bath and its surroundings. 

The visitor will find other attractions, too, at Ambalangoda, 
which with the surrounding hamlets has a population of 25,000 
people, engaged mostly in agricultural pursuits. Coconuts, 
tea, paddy, cinnamon and areca nuts are the chief products. 



■ ■■ 

" — 




Hikkaduwa (6om. 14c.). — This station serves a popula- Coast Line 
tion of about 4,000, engaged in the cultivation of coconuts, Hikkaduwa 
areca nuts, tea, paddy and cinnamon ; and in the preparation 
of coral lime, plumbago mining and the manufacture of coir 
yarn, lace, drum frames, and metal bowls used by Buddhist 

Dodaxdtwa (64m. 13c). — Dodanduwa is famous for its Dodanduwa 
plumbago and coir rope. It supplies annually about 1,000 
tons of the former and 300 tons of the latter. It possesses an 
asset of natural beauty in Ratgama Lake, which is quite close 
to the station. In the fields bordering this lake snipe shooting 
is very good during the latter months of the vear. 

About six miles west of Dodanduwa lies Baddegama, 
renowned as the oldest mission station of the English 
Church. The Church Missionary Society has the honour of 
having made the first effort here, and the results have been 
most encouraging. 

Gixtota (68m. 28c). — Gintota is a village of about 2,500 Qintota 
inhabitants, most of whom are occupied in coconut planting 
and the manufacture of coir rope from the fibre of the coconut 
husk. Its interest to the visitor, however, centres in the lovely 
scenery of the Ginganga, which here flows into the sea. The 
source of this river is near Adam's Peak. In its course, which 
is fifty-nine miles long, it drains no less than four hundred 
square miles of land. 

Galle (71m. 68c). — Galle, the chief town of the Southern Qaiie 
Province and seat of provincial government, claims consider- 
able attention, combining as it does a wealth of historical 
interest with great natural advantages. For upwards of a 
thousand years before Colombo assumed any degree of mer- 
cantile importance, Galle was known to the eastern world as 
a famous emporium. The places hitherto visited by us have 
for the most part greatly changed in character during the last 
fifty years, and the descriptions of them by earlier writers 
would not hold good to-day. But this venerable port of the 
south is a striking exception, and the visitor will find very 
little at variance with Sir Emerson Tennent's account, published 
in the middle of the last century. 

"No traveller fresh from Europe," says Tennent, "will Pkturesqne 
ever part with the impression left by his first gaze upon f iat " r " 
tropical scenery as it is displayed in the bay and the wooded 
hills that encircle it ; for, although Galle is surpassed both in 
grandeur and beauty by places afterwards seen in the island, 
still the feeling of admiration and wonder called forth by its 
loveliness remains vivid and unimpaired. If, as is frequently 
the case, the ship approaches the land at daybreak, the view 
recalls, but in an intensified degree, the emotions excited in 
childhood bv the slow rising of the curtain in a darkened 



Coast Line 

Galle in 
modern times 

Galle s 





theatre to disclose some magical triumph of the painter's fancy, 
in all the luxury of colouring and all the glory of light. The 
sea, blue as sapphire, breaks upon the fortified rocks which 
form the entrance to the harbour ; the headlands are bright 
with verdure ; and the yellow strand is shaded by palm trees 
that incline towards the sea, and bend their crowns above the 
water. The shore is gemmed with flowers, the hills behind 
are draped with forests of perennial green ; and far in the 
distance rises the zone of purple hills, above which towers the 
sacred mountain of Adam's Peak." 

In modern times Galle has been the mart first of Portugal 
and afterwards of Holland. The extensive fort constructed by 
the Dutch is still one of the chief features of the place and 
encloses the modern town. Although dismantled, few portions 
of it have been destroyed, and the remains add greatly to the 
picturesque character of the landscape. Amongst a large 
number of interesting remains of the Dutch period are the 
gateway of the fortress, the present entrance from the harbour, 
and the Dutch church, both of which we illustrate. A steep 
and shady street known as Old Gate Street ascends to the 
principal part of the town. 

The most flourishing period of Galle during the British 
occupation was that immediately preceding the construction 
of the harbour at Colombo. Then Galle obtained by far the 
largest share of the modern steamship trade. Its harbour was 
always regarded as dangerous, owing to the rocks and currents 
about the mouth ; but it was preferred to the open roadstead of 
Colombo, and the P. & O. and other important companies 
made use of it. Passengers for Colombo were landed at Galle, 
and a coach service provided them with the means of reaching 
their destination. 

Besides the trade that follows on shipping, the town was 
alive with such business as travellers bring. The local manu- 
facturers of jewellery and tortoiseshell ornaments, for which 
Galle has always been famous, met the strangers on arrival 
and did a thriving business. In fact, Galle was a miniature 
of what Colombo is to-day. But the new harbour of Colombo 
sealed its fate. The manufacturers now send their wares to 
Colombo, and the merchants have to a great extent migrated 
thither. The prosperity of Galle has therefore suffered a 
serious check; its fine hotel knows no "passenger days," its 
bazaars are quiet and its streets have lost their whilom busy 
aspect. Nevertheless, it is the seat of administration of a 
large, populous and thriving province, and must always remain 
a place of considerable importance. Its share of commerce 
will probablv increase as cultivation and mining still further 
extend. It is a great centre of the coconut industry, which 
has in recent years developed to a remarkable degree. 




The visitor will be impressed with the cleanliness no less Coast Line 
than the picturesque character of the streets, which are shaded streets md 
by Suriya trees. The buildings, as will be seen from our photo- f^'"^'"' 
graphs, are substantial and well-kept, some of the houses of 
the wealthier residents being admirably planned for coolness. 
Lighthouse Street contains the humbler dwellings; but even 
here the houses are spacious, and each has along the entire 
front a deep and shady verandah supported on pillars. This 
street probably presented the same appearance during the 
presence of the Dutch. The English Church of All Saints', Churches 
visible in our photograph of Church Street, is the finest in 
Ceylon, both in its architectural features and the manner of 
its building. 

The old Dutch Church, paved with tombstones and hung 
with mural monuments of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, has now an antiquarian interest. It is still used 
by the Presbyterian section of the inhabitants, and is well 
worth the attention of the visitor as an excellent specimen of 
the places of worship which the Dutch erected wherever they 
formed a settlement. Churches and forts are the abiding 
evidences of the solid determination of the Dutch to remain 
in Ceylon. They had come to stay, and consequently spared no 
cost or trouble to make their buildings of a permanent character. 
The British colonists, on the other hand, make Ceylon their 
temporary home, and seldom intend to die there : consequently 
thev do not display great enthusiasm for permanent institu- 
tions ; indeed, a whole century has passed without any attempt 
to build a cathedral worthy of the name, and outside Galle 
there is scarcely a beautiful English church in the island. 

Galle possesses a municipal constitution ; the area within 
the municipal limits is about seven square miles, with a 
population of 37,000. The New Oriental Hotel, having 
been built when Galle was the principal port of call between 
Aden, the Far East and Australasia, possesses accommoda- 
tion almost in excess of the present needs of travellers. 
Pleasant driving excursions can be made among the environs 
of Galle, which are always and everywhere delightful and 
interesting. The traveller will find facilities of every kind in 
the way of conveyances and boats, while banks, social clubs, 
a golf club, and other institutions usual in large towns are at 

Talpe (78m. 23c). — Talpe railway station has been estab- 
lished chiefly for goods traffic in the products of the coconut. 
It is about two miles from the village, which has a population 
of about 1,000. There is no rest-house or hotel. 

Ahangama (84m. 24c). — Ahangama has about 2,000 inhabi- 
tants engaged in cultivation of tea, coconuts, palmyra, paddv, 
betel, arccas, pepper, plantains, cinnamon and citronella. 





Coast Line Coggala Lake, about five square miles in extent, is two miles 
distant from the station. Sport, particularly snipe and wild 
boar, may be obtained in the neighbourhood. 
Weligama Weligama (89m. 58c). — Weligama is one of the many 

interesting spots on the south coast where the currents have 
scooped the shore into bays of exquisite beauty. Primitive 
nature in her most delightful moods here greets the traveller, 
who, after his recent experience of Galle, with all its drowsy 
luxury of a later stage of civilisation, cannot fail to be struck 
by the fact that Ceylon is a land of contrasts. Indeed it is 
one of the charms of travel in this fascinating land that so 
short a distance transports us from the up-to-date world to 
the manners, customs and surroundings of past centuries, and 
provides that change of thought and scene which induce the 
mental and physical benefits which are to most of us the end 
and object of our travel. There is a comfortable rest-house 
three-quarters of a mile from the station, pleasantly situated 
so as to command a good view of the bay. Good food and 
accommodation, boats, hackeries and attendants are always 
available. Excellent sport in fishing is obtainable. There are 
many objects of interest which will be pointed out by the 
Loral products The population of Weligama is about 10,000. Its products 

are coconuts, areca nuts, cinnamon, citronella and plumbago. 
Lace and coir rope are its manufactures. 
Kamburu- Kamburugamua (95m. 4c). — Kamburugamua railway 

station serves the scattered villages which lie midway between 
Weligama and Matara, having a population of about 6,000. 
There are no facilities or accommodation beyond the mere 
platform of the station, nor is there need for them as Matara 
is only three miles distant. The chief products are coconuts, 
citronella and vegetables. In some months of the year no less 
than ten tons of pumpkins are despatched by rail to various 
markets. Coir yarn and lace are manufactured in every 
village. There is very good snipe shooting in the neighbour- 
Matara Matara (98m. 36c). — Matara, the present terminus of the 

coast line, is a beautiful and interesting town of about 20,000 
inhabitants, lying at the mouth of the Nil-ganga, or Blue 
River, which flows into the sea within four miles of Dondra 
Head, the southernmost point of the island. Apart from the 
beauty of the river, which like all others in Cevlon is bordered 
on either bank with the richest vegetation, the chief points of 
interest in Matara are connected with Dutch antiquities. Of 
these a short account only must suffice. 

There are two forts and an old Dutch Church still in good 
preservation to testifv to the importance with which Matara 
was regarded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 


Coast Line The smaller of the forts is of the well-known star formation. 

The star fort It wa s built by Governor Van Eck in 1763. The gateway is 
in particularly good preservation, and although the arms above 
the door are carved in wood every detail is still perfect. At 
the present time this star fort serves as the residence of the 
officer of the Public Works for the Matara district. 

The main fo,t The larger fort consists of extensive stone and coral works 

facing the sea and extending inwards on the south till thev 
meet the river, which forms part of the defences. Within the 
enclosure are most of the official buildings of the place, includ- 
ing the Courts, the Kachcheri, and the residence of the 
Assistant Government Agent. To these buildings must be 
added the rest-house, which is important to travellers and 
will be lound very comfortable. The appearance of the fort, 
from within, is distinctly park-like and picturesque owing to 
the beautiful trees which have been introduced in recent years. 
These afford delightful shade and render a stroll beneath them 
pleasant when the sun does not permit of walking in the open. 
The land around Matara is extremely fertile and no place 
could be more abundantly supplied with food, especially fish, 
the variety of which is very large. The neighbourhood affords 
most delightful walks and drives through the finest avenues of 
umbrageous trees to be met with in Ceylon. 

A/i-oan^a Our picture of the bathing-place on the banks of the Nil- 

ganga possesses one peculiarity which may seem curious to 
the European who is not acquainted with tropical rivers — the 
fence of large stakes constructed to keep out the crocodiles. 
Without this, bathing would be unsafe and would probably 
be indulged in at the cost of many a human life. This photo- 
graph also presents a typical scene in the background from 
which some idea may be gathered of the recreation grounds 
of a southern town in Ceylon. Here golf and cricket claim 
their votaries as in larger places, and facilities for enjoying 
these games are not wanting. 

The local accommodation for travellers is considerable. 
Ladies will find a well-furnished waiting-room at the railway 
station. The government rest-house is ten minutes' drive from 
the station ; it has seven good bedrooms and spacious dining- 
hall and verandahs. Horse carriages can be obtained at the 
rate of one rupee for the first hour and twenty-five cents an 
hour for subsequent time; and bullock hackeries can be 
obtained at twenty-five cents an hour. The chief local pro- 
ducts are coconuts, paddy, betel, arecas, kurrakan, pepper, 
plantains, cinnamon and citronella. 

The local manufactures are baskets, lace, jewellery, coir 
and furniture. 

Matara being an " Assistant Government Agency " is fur- 
nished with courts and the residences of government officers. 


Local products 




The main line passenger trains at present leave Colombo at 
the Maradana Junction; but as alterations are in progress, 
which will involve a change in the location of the main 
passenger station, it will be advisable to obtain the latest 
information at the date of travelling. 

Leaving Colombo, the main line passes through marshy 
lands and backwaters until at the second mile the River Kelani 
is crossed and a fine view afforded on either side. At the 
fourth mile the first station appears, and although it is situated 
in the village of Paliyagoda it takes its name of Kelaniya from 
the district. 

Kelaniya (3m. 49c). — There is no hotel or rest-house Kelaniya 
accommodation at Kelaniya, nor are there any conveyances for * '*■** 
hire with the exception of bullock-hackeries, which, however, 
will generally be found sufficient for all requirements. The 
agricultural products are coconuts, paddy and vegetables. 
The women of the villages are chiefly occupied in carrying the 
vegetables upon their heads to the markets of Colombo, and 
large numbers of them will be noticed engaged in this useful 
work. The chief native industry is the manufacture of bricks 
and tiles for building purposes. Our illustration (Plate 91) 
gives a very good idea of a tile yard ; in it can be seen some 
of the oldest fashioned tiles, which are semi-cvlindrical. These 
have been superseded to some extent by the flat-shaped pattern 
from Southern India ; but for simplicity, general utility and 
coolness thev have no equal. Other industries of Kelaniya are 
the desiccating of coconuts for purposes of confectionery, and 
the storage and preparation of artificial manures for the tea 
and other estates. The latter is a business of considerable 

* The number of feet {riven in the margins indicate the elevations of 
the station above sea level. 


92. SCEN 

xuc muco KP' 4fJI 


7 1 

But the chief object of interest to the visitor is the Kelaniya Main Une 
Wihare (Buddhist Temple), which is held in great veneration 
by all the Buddhists of the lowlands, and to which many 
thousands come on full-moon days, bearing gifts of fruit, 
money and flowers for the shrine. This building stands near 
the river bank, about two and a half miles from the railway 
station. The present temple is about two hundred years old, 
but its dagaba or bell-shaped shrine is much older and was 
probably erected in the thirteenth century. The site is, how- 
ever, one referred to in history and legend in far more remote 
antiquity. The image of Buddha, thirty-six feet in length, and 
the brilliant frescoes depicting scenes in his various lives, are 
fittingly found in the place which he is supposed to have visited 
in person during his life. However much traditions may 
transcend the limits of strict historical verity, it is undoubted 
that Kelaniya was a place of considerable fame in early times, 
and it is not surprising that its venerable temple and its sacred 
shrine attract both pilgrims from afar and non-Buddhist sight- 
seers of many nationalities, especially as the railway has added 
so much to the facilities for reaching them. 

Hunupitiya (5m. 42c). — Hunupitiya is best known to 
Colombo people for its rifle range, where practice is carried on 
by the military and police from Colombo. The accommodation 
is limited to the large waiting hall of the railway station and 
a restaurant called the Hunupitiya Bar, about one hundred 
yards from the station. Coconuts and paddy are the chief 
agricultural products, while small plots of betel, arecas and 
plantains are also cultivated. The manufactures are limited to 
coir yarn spun from the husks of the coconut. Junction (9m.). — At Ragama cultivation increases 
in variety, and we notice both tea and cinnamon in addition to 
the coconuts and paddy. The inhabitants of the village are 
Sinhalese, and number about 2,500 irrespective of those who 
are temporarily in the observation camp, an institution from 
which Ragama derives much of its present importance. The 
reason for the existence of this camp is found in the fact that 
Ceylon is dependent upon India for the supply of labour for the 
tea estates, involving a constant immigration of Tamil coolies 
to the extent of about 150,000 per annum. In order that these 
new-comers should not import disease into the various districts 
of Ceylon they are, immediately upon disembarkation at 
Colombo, placed in quarters specially provided at the root of 
the breakwater. Here they are subjected to a thorough inspec- 
tion, bathed and fed. Next they are entrained on the spot and 
conveyed to Ragama, where they are kept under observation 
until it is considered safe for them to proceed to their various 



Main Line destinations. During the Boer War a large number of recalci- 

trant prisoners-of-\var were removed from the delightful camp 
of Diyatalawa and placed here in order that thev might not 
infect the rest with their discontent. 

Ragama is the junction for the branch line to Negombo, 
1 4/2 miles in length. The line runs through typical local 
scenery and cinnamon and coconut plantations. Negombo, 
which is situated on the sea, is an exceedingly pretty town, 
and even before the advent of the railway was a favourite motor 
run, the rest-house keeper being noted for his fish breakfasts. 
(See also Negombo section, pages 230-232). Near Ragama 
are the famous Mahara quarries whence was obtained 
all the stone for the construction of the breakwaters and 
harbour works of Colombo. Another quarry has been opened 
close by the old one for the supply of stone for protective 
works on the coast line and other railway requirements. 
The branch railway line which will be noticed diverging to the 
right leads to the quarries. 

Henaratgoda Hexar atgoda (16m. 40c). — Henaratgoda is a busy little 

3 6/l ' rf town of about 5,000 inhabitants, situated amidst well-watered 

fields and gardens whose products are of considerable variety 
and importance. Gardens devoted to the culture of the bete! 

Local pioduds vine are in evidence, and supply railway freight to the extent 
of twenty tons of leaves a week in addition to large loads 
depatched by other means. The district also produces areca 
nuts, pepper, cinnamon, rubber, tea, paddv and coconuts. 

Its chief interest, however, centres in the Botanic Gardens, 
where we may see some of the finest Para rubber trees in the 
colony. Many passengers from various countries who call at 
the port ol Colombo make a trip to Henaratgoda for the special 
purpose of seeing these trees. The railway and other facilities 
afforded render the journey easv and comfortable. There is a 
good rest-house near the station and refreshments are pro- 
curable without previous notice. Buggies or hackeries can be 

Botanic Gardens hired near the station for driving to the gardens about a mile 
distant. The usual charge is twenty-five cents or fourpence 
a mile. The garden is one of a number of such institutions 
that are under the Government Department of Botany and 
Agriculture with headquarters at Peradeniya, where its Director 
and his extensive scientific staff of experts reside. The 
Henaratgoda gardens were opened in 1876 for the purpose 
of making experiments in ascertaining suitable subjects for 
cultivation in the heated lowlands. It was about this time that 
the Para rubber seed was planted, and manv of the trees that 
we see there to-dav are therefore upwards of thirty years old. 
These, together with others more recently planted, provide an 
excellent and encouraging object lesson to the investor in the 
latest " boom " of tropical culture. 




Photo by Air. Kelway Bai>ibcr. 



Although the Royal Botanic Gardens at Henaratgoda have 
recently been so much regarded as the show place of rubber 
trees to the neglect of all else, the visitor will find many fine- 
specimens of other useful trees and plants, including ebony and 
satinwood. The cultivated area is about thirty acres. 

Veyangoda (22m. 54c). — Veyangoda, the first stop of the 
fast trains to Kandy, lies midway between Negombo on the 
west coast and Ruanwella in the Kelani Valley, and derives 
its importance from the main road between these places which 
on the one side contributes a large freight in dried fish from 
the coast for the estate coolies in the hills, and on the other 
tea and various products for the port of Colombo. The large 
factory visible from the railway is the desiccating factory of 
the Orient Company. 

There is a good rest-house, about five minutes' walk from 
the station, situated on a knoll overlooking the railway line, 
containing two single and two double bedrooms. Food should 
be ordered in advance. 

The village of Veyangoda is about three miles from the 
railway station, upon the old Colombo-Kandy road. Near it, 
at the twenty-fourth mile from Colombo, is situated the his- 
toric residence of Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranaike, C.M.G., 
the Maha Mudaliyar of Ceylon (a title signifying the head of 
the Mudaliyars or low-country chieftains). The present Maha 
Mudaliyar is also native aide de camp to his Excellency the 
Governor of the Colony, and amongst the duties of his office 
is that of presenting on State occasions the various native 
dignitaries to the Governor. 

Mirigama (30m. 54c). — To the traveller proceeding to 
Kandy for the first time the lowland scenery, as the train 
proceeds from station to station, is an ever fascinating 
panorama. He cannot fail to feel enchanted bv the alternating 
scenes of primitive husbandry, glimpses of villages embosomed 
in palms, magnificent groups of tropical trees, and particularly 
with the effect of the masses of thick forest broken up at fre- 
quent intervals by deep recesses devoted to the cultivation of 
paddy. From November to January, when the corn is rising 
from its watery bed, snipe and other aquatic birds appear 
in large numbers between Veyangoda and Rambukkana and 
afford excellent sport. In February and March the attention 
is arrested by the quaint operations of harvest, which are con- 
ducted with a ceremonial to be illustrated and described later 
in connection with the Kandyan villages. 

The country around Mirigama is very favourable to the 
cultivation of the coconut, as is evidenced by the remarkable 
yield of fruit on many of the trees. It is not often, however, 
that the traveller can spare the time to inspect the various 

The Maha 

Main Line features of interest in this important branch of tropical agri- 


I ses of (lie 

culture, but he may as he passes through it welcome some 
account in these pages supplemented by illustrations that 
belong to the district. Its ubiquity is often the only thing 
noticed by the visitor about the coconut palm, and from this 
arises the erroneous supposition that it is an indigenous plant, 
whereas the native saying that it will not flourish away from 
the sound of the human voice is nearer the truth. The coconut 
is the chief source of Sinhalese wealth ; but unlike cinnamon 
it depends upon man for its existence, and if left to nature 
pines and dies. It is true, therefore, that wherever you see 
the coconut palm there is population. Although European 
colonists have considerably extended its cultivation it is pre- 
eminently the national tree, the friend of the natives, all of 
whom share in its benefits, from the wealthy owner of 
tens of thousands of trees to the humble possessor of a tithe 
of one. 

There are few gifts of the earth about which so much may 
be said ; its uses are infinite, and to the Sinhalese villager all 
sufficient. " With the trunk of the tree he builds his hut and 
his bullock-stall, which he thatches with its leaves. His bolts 
and bars are slips of the bark, by which he also suspends the 
small shelf which holds his stock of home-made utensils and 
vessels. He fences his little plot of chillies, tobacco and fine 
grain, with the leaf stalks. The infant is swung to sleep in 
a rude net of coir-string made from the husk of the fruit ; its 
meal of rice and scraped coconut is boiled over a fire of coco- 
nut shells and husks, and is eaten off a dish formed of the 
plaited green leaves of the tree with a spoon cut out of the 
nut-shell. When he goes fishing by torch-light his net is of 
coconut fibre, the torch or chulc is a bundle of dried coconut 
leaves and flower-stalks ; the little canoe is the trunk of the 
coco-palm tree, hollowed by his own hands. He carries home 
his net and string of fish on a yoke, or pingo, formed of a 
coconut stalk. When he is thirsty, he drinks of the fresh 
juice of the voung nut ; when he is hungry, he eats its soft 
kernel. If he have a mind to be merry, he sips a glass of 
arrack, distilled from the fermented juice, and he flavours his 
currv with vinegar made from this toddy. Should he be sick, 
his body will be rubbed with coconut oil; he sweetens his 
coffee with jaggery or coconut sugar, and softens it with 
coconut milk ; it is sipped by the light of a lamp constructed 
from a coconut shell and fed by coconut oil. His doors, his 
windows, his shelves, his chairs, the water gutter under the 
eaves, are all made from the wood of the tree. His spoons, 
his forks, his basins, his mugs, his salt-cellars, his jars, his 
child's money-box, are all constructed from the shell of the nut. 
Over his couch when born, and over his grave when buried, a 






Export of oil 

and ji bra 


bunch of coconut blossom is hung to charm away evil Main Line 

As an object of commerce coconut oil, of which upwards 
of 5,000,000 gallons are annually exported, holds the first 
place. Next in importance is the fibre of the husk known as 
coir. This is exported to the extent of about 10,000 tons 
annually. The export of copra (the dried kernel of the nuts) 
amounts annually to about 375,000 cwt., while that of 
the desiccated nut for confectionery amounts to upwards of 
16,000,000 lbs. From this recital of figures it will be rightly 
surmised that a very small proportion of the annual yield of 
nuts leave the country in their natural state, nearly all the 
export trade being in manufactured products. One thousand 
millions is a reasonable estimate of the year's supply of coco- 
nuts in Ceylon, about two-fifths of which are exported in the 
form of oil, copra, confectionery and husked fruit, the re- 
mainder being consumed by the population chiefly as food and 

In Colombo there are mills containing machinery of the Coconut mill 
most powerful and ingenious character for the expression of 
the oil from the coconuts. Their design and construction are 
the jealously guarded secret of the firms who own them, and 
a mystery to the general public; but the " chekku " or Sin- 
halese mill illustrated by plate 101 will not escape the notice 
of the stranger. There are about three thousand of them in 
Ceylon. This primitive apparatus consists of a large mortar, ihechekku 
generally of hewn stone, but sometimes of iron or wood, with 
a pestle worked by a lever which is drawn in a circle by a 
pair of bullocks. The rude construction of the apparatus, 
weighted at the end of the lever with roughly hewn rocks 
upon which the scantily clad driver disports himself, and the 
ear-splitting creaks of the timber as the poor little bullocks 
communicate motion to the pestle by means of their humps 
form one of those typical Oriental scenes which have not 
changed for a thousand years, and victoriously hold their 
own against the innovations of the foreigner even in this 
age of scientific appliances. 

The average yield per annum of a coconut tree is about 
fifty nuts, but exceptionally prolific trees are common enough 
on well cultivated plantations, and of these the yield may 
reach one hundred and fifty or more. A specimen is given in 
plate 99. It will be observed that at least fifty nuts are clearly 
visible, and as many more are hidden from view. The yield Prolific bees 
of this fine tree must be upwards of two hundred in the year. 

* This charming description of the Sinhalese villager's necessities 
supplied by this bountiful palm is from the pen of the late Mr. John 



Main Line 

ticcommoda tion 





The nature of the soil and the method of cultivation doubtless 
account for difference in crop as they do in other branches of 

The stranger from Europe often makes his first close 
acquaintance with the unhusked coconut at the railway stations 
of Ceylon, where little brown urchins, with hatchet in one 
hand and in the other several nuts suspended by stalks, peram- 
bulate the platforms shouting " Kurumba, Kurumba. " The 
thirsty traveller is thus invited to drink the water of the fresh 
coconut, which is at once wholesome, cool and refreshing. 

At Mirigama the traveller is accommodated in a neat little 
rest-house containing four bedrooms and the usual dining hall 
and verandahs. It is situated a mile from the railway station 
in an elevated position commanding beautiful scenery. Food 
can be obtained here without being ordered in advance. Good 
hackeries can be hired at twenty-five cents or fourpence a mile. 

The manufactures comprise baskets, such furniture and 
bullock-conveyances as are required for local use, and desic- 
cated coconut to the extent of about one hundred tons a 
month. There are plumbago mines in the district from which 
about one hundred and fifty tons per month are despatched by 
rail. Betel leaf is also grown for the supply of distant markets 
to the extent of about six tons per month. The goods and 
passenger traffic at Mirigama testify to a very flourishing trade. 

Ambepussa (34m. 45c). — Ambepussa possesses the general 
characteristics of Mirigama, and these need not be again 
described ; but the area served by the railway station is not so 
large. The village from which it derives its name is four miles 
away upon the old highway to Kandy, whereas the station in 
reality is situated in the village of Keendeniya. Ambepussa was 
a place of importance in earlier times, and owns a rest-house 
more than usually capacious, built upon an eminence over- 
looking' charming country and possessing extensive grounds. 
It is, however, essential for the traveller to give notice of his 
intended arrival if he is likely to require provisions. The 
country here becomes more mountainous and the Maha-oya runs 
a wild and tortuous course. The climate is exceedingly hot. 
Good snipe shooting is to be had from November to February 
as well as hare, wild boar and deer. 

Alawwa (40m. 24c). — Alawwa is one of the least important 
of the main line stations. The scenery, however, becomes more 
varied in character as we pass through this district. The 
railway runs parallel to the Maha-oya, which affords oppor- 
tunities to the snap-shotter ; for there are many exquisite vistas 
between the clumps of bamboo that decorate the banks ; and 
with the present day rapid lenses and focal-plane-shutters 
photography from a moving train is not impossible, as some 


of the illustrations in this volume prove. Before the railway Main Line 
opened up this district to cultivation it was so malarious that 
it is said that every sleeper laid took its toll of a human life, 
so terrible was the death rate from the fever-laden miasma of 
some of the tracts of jungle-land that had to be penetrated. 

Polgahawela (45m. 34c). — Polgahawela is the junction Polgahawela 
station for the Northern line (and in the early future for India). 2 ^ Jce 
Passengers arc afforded ever)' facility for comfort. There is 
a refreshment room under the management of the Refreshment 
Car Company, where meals can be obtained. There is also a 
rest-house quite near the station with bedrooms. Light re- 
freshments can be obtained. The agriculture of the district is 
the same as described in connection with Mirigama, with the 
considerable addition of plantains, which are grown here ex- 
tensively for markets which arc brought into reach by the 
railway, about one hundred and fifty tons being despatched in 
the course of each month. This station serves the large and 
important district of Kcgalle, the distance to the town of Kegalle 
Kegalle being ten miles in a southerly direction, and to which 
there is a mail-coach service conveying European passengers 
for a fare of two rupees. The traveller who is intending to 
see all the most interesting and beautiful places in Ceylon 
should not omit Kegalle from his itinerary. It provides a 
pleasant excursion from Kandy either by motor car or by rail 
to Polgahawela and thence by coach. The situation of the 
town is lovely and the scenery by which it is encompassed is 
exquisite, while the antiquities scattered throughout the 
district are too numerous to mention here.'" One of the most 
interesting, however, is so near to Polgahawela, being only Antiqmtie 
two and a half miles distant on the coach road to Kegalle, 
that some reference to it must be made. This is an old 
Buddhist temple known as Wattarama, built in the third 
ccnturv and endowed with the lands and villages around it by 
King Gothabhaya. Its age is attested no less by ancient 
writings and traditions than by the interesting remains. 

Beside the ruins of the original edifice, consisting of large 
monolith pillars and various steps and door-frames, there is a 
group of buildings of various later dates composed partlv of 
ancient materials. 

About a mile from the railway station, at (lalbodagamakanda, 
may be seen twelve granite pillars, the only remains of a 
beautiful palace said to have been built by King Bhuwenake 
Bahu II., in A.n. 1319, lor his sixty-seven beautiful queens! 

A large number of Talipot Palms are to be seen between Talipot palms 
Polgahawela and Kandy ; and fortunate will the traveller be 

* The antiquarian who explores this District should provide himself 
with a copy of the " Report on the Kcgalle District " by the Archaeo- 
logical Commissioner ; obtainable at the Government Record Office, 
Colombo ; price, six rupees. 


Main Line who happens to pass through this district when a large number 

of them are in flower. The botanical world offers no more 
beautiful sight than this. The period when it may be enjoyed 
is, however, quite uncertain, as the flower bursts forth once 
only in the lifetime of the tree when it is approaching its 
hundredth year. It occasionally happens that scores of trees 
are in flower at one time, while at another not one may be 
Rambukkana Rambukkana (52m. lie). — At Rambukkana the ascent into 

2 9°/«' the Kandyan Mountains begins, and the landscape assumes an 

aspect of fascinating grandeur. If Ceylon presented no other 
spectacle of interest to the traveller it would still be worth his 
while to visit Kandy if only to see the panorama that unfolds 
itself as the train moves upward in its winding and intricate 
course on the scarped sides of the mountains overlooking the 
lovely Dekanda valley. An additional powerful engine is now 
attached to the rear of our train, and so sharp are 
the curves that it is frequently possible for the passenger 
seated in the train to see both engines ; or from his 
seat to take a photograph including in the landscape a 
Scenery oj the large portion of the train in which he is travelling. At 
/" ISS one moment, on the edge of a sheer precipice, we are 

gazing downwards some thousand feet below ; at another 
we are looking upwards at a mighty crag a thousand feet 
above ; from the curves by which we climb the mountain 
sides fresh views appear at every turn ; far-reaching valleys 
edged by the soft blue ranges of distant mountains and filled 
with luxuriant masses of dense forest, relieved here and there 
by the vivid green terraces of the rice fields ; cascades of lovely 
flowering creepers, hanging in festoons from tree to tree and 
from crag to crag ; above and below deep ravines and foaming 
waterfalls dashing their spray into mist as it falls into the 
verdurous abyss ; fresh mountain peaks appearing in ever- 
changing grouping as we gently wind along the steep 
gradients ; daring crossings from rock to rock, so startling 
as to unnerve the timid as we pass over gorges cleft in the 
mountain side and look upon the green depths below, so near 
the edge of the vertical precipice that a fall from the carriage 
would land us sheer sixteen hundred feet below ; the lofty 
Talipot is flourishing on either side ; the scattered huts and 
gardens, and the quaint people about them, so primitive in 
their habits which vary little from those of two thousand years 
ago — these are some of the features of interest as we journey 
into the Kandyan district. 

The precipitous mountain of Allagalla which we illustrate 
is the most conspicuous feature of the landscape. Our 
train creeps along upon its steep side of granite. The 
track is visible in our picture (Plate 103) like a belt passing 




Photo by Pldti & i 


around the rock. The peak towers aloft 2,500 feet above us, Main Line 
while the beautiful valley lies a thousand feet below. On the 
far side of that peak lies Hataraliyadda, a warm but radiant 
valley, where primeval manners and customs are yet unin- 
fluenced by the march of western civilisation. 

Allagalla is always majestic, but most beautiful immediately Allagalla 
after excessive rainfall, when it is literally besprinkled with 
cataracts, some of which burst forth many hundreds of feet 
above the railway, and dash into the valleys some thousand feet 
below, increasing in volume and gathering enormous impetus 
as they pass under the line in deep fissures. The height of 
Allagalla is 3,394 feet. Tea grows upon its steep acclivities, 
and those who are occupied in its cultivation on these giddy 
heights are enviable spectators of the most varied and beautiful 
atmospheric scenes that are to be found in Ceylon. Unsettled 
weather is extremelv frequent and is productive of an endless 
variety of cloud and storm effects over the wonderful valley 
which undulates below until in the far distance it is backed by 
the rugged mountains opposed to Allagalla and which reach 
a greater height. At one time a vast sea of mists is rolling 
in fleecy clouds over the lowland acres and the summits of the 
hills are standing out from it like wooded islands ; at another 
every shape of the beautiful landscape is faultlessly defined 
and every colour is vivid beneath the tropical sun ; then an 
hour or two will pass and rolling masses of dense black vapours 
will approach the mountain while the sunbeams play on the 
distant hills ; now the sun becomes obscured, a streak of fire 
(Plate 103) flashes through the black mass and immediately the 
whole mountain seems shaken by the terrific peal of thunder. 
Then follows a downpour at the rate of a full inch an hour ; 
the cascades turn to roaring cataracts, the dry paths to rush- 
ing torrents and the rivulets to raging floods. The rice-fields 
suddenly become transformed into lakes and the appearance of 
the valleys suggests considerable devastation by water ; but 
it is not so : the torrent passes away almost as suddenly as 
it comes, and the somewhat bruised and battered vegetation 
freshens and bursts into new life as the heavy pall of purple 
cloud disperses and the gleams of the golden sun return to 
cheer its efforts. That tea or anything else should grow on 
these rocky slopes is one of the marvels of this wonderful land. 

Our attention will perhaps be mostlv attracted to the 
Dekanda Valley (Plate 104). The terraced rice-fields, the bcauti- Dekamla 
ful trees, plants and creepers upon the slopes beneath us, the 
distant mountains rising in tiers on all sides and o'erhung with 
vapours whose forms and contrasts of tone from the deepest 
black to the purest white are almost always present, the curious 
shapes displayed by the heights — all these contribute to make 
our slow progress seem all too rapid. 



An ancient 



We are now in the freshness of mountain air and have left 
behind us the steamy low-country, where the simmering heat, 
although the efficient cause of the beautiful features of the 
landscape, is nevertheless somewhat trying to our energies. For 
thirteen miles we have been slowly crawling round the moun- 
tain sides, ever moving upwards, till at length, through a 
narrow pass, we emerge upon one of the ledges of the 
mountain system. Here the brave Kandyans held their capital 
for centuries against all the attempts of Europeans to take it. 
There was an ancient prophecy current amongst them that 
whoever should pierce the rock and make a road into Kandy 
from the plains would receive the kingdom as his reward. The 
prophecy was at length fulfilled by the British, who made the 
road, pierced the rock and secured the safe and permanent 
possession of the prize. The scene of the exploit is now 
before us. 


From the train we may see the road and the pierced rock 
as illustrated by our plate. The eminence rising above this 
rock is known as Scouts' Hill from the circumstance that the 
Kandyans jealously guarded this gate to their kingdom with 
their forces always in readiness, should an enemy appear from 
the low-country. Each inhabitant was subject to sentinel duty 
and thousands were kept at posts overlooking the plains 
around, many even having to keep their watch on the tops 
of trees commanding extensive views of the whole country 
round, so that no person could get either in or out of the 
kingdom unobserved and without permission. Indeed, so 
jealous were the apprehensions of the Kandyan monarch when 


the British appeared in Ceylon that a strict system of pass- Main Line 
ports from one district to another was adopted. 

A lofty column comes into view as a signal that we have The Damson 
arrived at the top of the pass. Both road and rail here con- """'""""' 
verge and make their entrance into the Kandyan country 
together, the road being most picturesque at its entrance to 
Kadugannawa. The monument is not, as is often supposed, 
in commemoration of the introduction of the railway, but a 
memorial to Captain Dawson of the Royal Engineers, who 
planned and superintended the construction of the road. It 
was erected by public subscription in 1832. 

Kadugannawa (65m.). — At Kadugannawa we are at once in Kadugannawa 
most interesting Kandyan country, its chief attractions to us i,6go/eet 
being the singular beauty of the road scenery and the historical 
temples in the district. 

Now that we have reached the region where both climate 
and opportunity combine in offering inducements to the tra- 
veller to visit the interesting wilu'tres, pansalas and dcwales 
which are so closely associated with Buddhist life and thought 
in Ceylon, it is fitting to pause for a moment for the definition 
of terms with which we must now become familiar. 

Wihdre literally and strictly means a temple of Buddha with wih&res 
an altar over which is placed an image of the Buddha. In 
general use, however, the term includes three or four buildings : 
the pansala, or abode of the priests; the dagaba, or dome- 
shaped monument, which usually enshrines some relic ; the 
bodhimaluwa, or platform and altar surrounding a sacred 
bo-tree, and the wihare or temple of the image. In large 
pansalas, accommodating a number of monks, there is usually 
a poya-ge or hall in which the monks recite their confessions. 
To some of the temples there is also attached a bana maduwa, 
or preaching hall, where the Buddhist scriptures are read and 

The history of the de-wale offers a striking example of the Dewdks 
adoption and absorption by a conquering religion of deities 
previously in possession of the field. As Rome took to herself 
many of the deities of the Hellenic world, and as even later 
religious systems are not altogether untinctured by those they 
have superseded, so the victorious Buddhism that invaded 
Ceylon in the early part of the third century B.C. felt the in- 
fluence of the Hindu gods worshipped by the earlier colonists 
and by the Tamils who came into the island at a later date. 
It was impossible, however, for the self-denying faith of Buddha 
to incorporate in its mild and humane cult repugnant features 
of the dethroned faith. The only course then was to substitute 
for their objectionable characteristics others more in conformity 
with the precepts of Gotama. In this way Vishnu, the second 
person of the Hindu trinity, becomes the tutelary deity of the 


Main Line island, while the third person, Siva, adopted under the name 

of Xata, is the Expected of the next Kalpa, the new Buddha 
who is to reign in succession to the present. Kataragam, the 
Hindu god of war, is honoured for the aid given by him to 
Rama, when the latter invaded Ceylon and defeated the demon- 
king Ravana in order to rescue Sita from captivity. To these 
three deities, and to Pattini, the goddess of chastity, the 
majority of the de-wales will be found to be dedicated. 

Cadaiadeniya Gadaladeniya is within easy reach of Kadugannawa. Two 

and a half miles distant, upon the main road to Kandy, at a 
place called Embilmigama, near the sixty-fifth mile stone from 
Colombo, a pathway on the south side leads to a typical temple 
village, three-quarters of a mile from the main road. Here on 
a small hill will be found one of the most interesting and pic- 
turesque imihdres in Ceylon, the Gadaladeniya. A considerable 
portion of the building is original and dates from a.d. 1344. 
A most pleasant excursion can be made to this temple by 
driving from Kandy, seven miles, or by rail to Kadugannawa, 
and thence by hackery, the cost of which is thirty cents a mile. 

Lanliatiiaki The most beautiful of all the Kandyan temples, the Lanka- 

tilake, may be reached by continuing the bridle path for about 
two and a half miles past Gadaladeniya. It is hoped that at 
an early date this bridle path will be converted into a cart road, 
when it will be possible to drive from Kandy to both these 
ancient temples. Lankatilake may also be reached from Kandy 
via Peradeniya Junction lour and a half miles, and thence by 
a minor road to Dawulagala, three and a half miles, after which 
a footpath must be taken for the last mile. 

Embekke dewdle is nearly a mile distant by bridle path from 
Dawulagala. Architecturally this temple is very interesting. 

Still another romantic and historical spot is to be reached 
by turning' off the main road at the same place, namely Embil- 
migama, about two and a half miles from Kadugannawa, and 
at the sixty-fifth mile stone from Colombo; but this time we 
take the minor road on the north side leading to Siyambala- 
goda (three miles), and from this village it is three-quarters of 
a mile walk to Dodanwala Maha dewule, a temple of great 
historical interest, and containing many relics of the battle 
between the Kandyans, under Rajah II., and the Portuguese. 

Kadugannawa is said to have been a health resort in earlier 
times, and with its salubrious air, its good supply of pure 
spring water, the grandeur of its scenery and its proximity to 
interesting places it is still deserving of the attention of Kand- 
yans as a charming suburb. 



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Peradeniya Junction (70m. 46c). — Here the fast trains of Peradeniya 
the main line are divided ; the Kandy and Matale portion pro- 
ceeding northwards, and the Bandarawela part to the south 
with the passengers for Nuwara Eliya and the Uva country. 
Proceeding in the Kandy train we next come to 

Peradeniya New (70m. 86c). — Peradeniya New is the Peradeniya 
station for the Royal Botanic Gardens of Peradeniya, world- Boianic 
famed for their usefulness and their beauty. Here, in a situa- Gardens 
tion perfectly ideal from whatever point of view it is regarded, 
is a marvellous collection of living specimens of the flora of 
the whole tropical world, as well as the great herbarium and 
museum of Ceylon plants. The term Royal Botanic Gardens, 
however, stands for something vastly more important than the 
great show-place of floral wonders which has gained their wide 
repute. From their inception a century ago they have been 
organised to foster and assist agricultural enterprise ; but in 
recent years the scope of their usefulness in this direction has 
been so widened and developed that the title now indicates a 
government department of botany and agriculture presided 
over by a director and staff of scientific specialists in botany, 
chemistry, mycology and entomology, under whose direction 
all agricultural possibilities are put to the test and experimental 
culture carried on in various parts of the country. Thus not 
only are all useful and ornamental trees and plants of other 
countries introduced into the colony, but technical and scientific 
advice and instruction are given as to every condition that 
makes for success in culture, in the treatment and prevention 
of diseases of plant life and the destruction and prevention of 
insect pests. In no country is more assistance for agriculturists 
provided by the Government, whose attitude to the native is 
truly paternal ; for it supplies him with seeds, advice and in- 
struction, free of cost ; it cares for his prosperity ; finds out 
what it is desirable for him to grow and experiments upon the 
product for him ; advises him upon every point, and periodically 
inquires how he is getting on. 

The gardens are situated within a loop made by the 
Mahaweliganga, which forms a peninsula of about a mile in 
length with a minimum breadth of six hundred yards. The 
enclosure covers one hundred and fifty acres, and the elevation 
above sea-level is 1,600 feet. The general configuration will 
be seen by a glance at our plan. The facilities for inspecting 
the plants could scarcely be improved upon, and although the 
greatest enjoyment will generally fall to the pedestrian, the 
roads over which driving is permissible afford good opportuni- 
ties for those who like to take their pleasures lazily. 

The task of exploring the gardens will prove easy enough 
with the help of our plan, and the directing boards that are 



Peradeniya erected at the entrance to the various drives and walks. The 
Gardens botanist will find the principal plants and trees labelled. 

The red Upon approaching' the main entrance there will be noticed 

cotton tree quite near the rest-house the fine specimen of the red cotton- 

tree (Bombax malabaricurn). This is the tree known locally 
as Katu-imbul, and is one of the few trees in Ceylon that are 
deciduous. Its most attractive period is January or February, 
when it presents a gorgeous spectacle, due to its being literally 
covered with large fleshy flowers of bright scarlet hue, which 
it showers in profusion upon the green sward, thus providing 
for itself the rich setting of a carpet of blossoms. 
Assam On the left of the entrance to the gardens we arc now 

"•'"''"■'" attracted by a grove of Assam rubber trees {Fiats elastica). 

The little plant with its bright green oval leaves, which in 
England we are accustomed to see in sitting-rooms and con- 
servatories, grows in its native land to an enormous size, and 
throws out horizontal boughs to an extent of more than fifty 
feet. It is most remarkable, however, for its snake-like roots, 
■which extend from the base of the trunk to a distance greater 
than the height of the tree. 

We now pass into the stately enclosure where the botanic 
splendour in which Ceylon is so richly clothed from shore to 
The entrance shore reaches its supreme display. On either side of the en- 
trance is a tall African palm (Ehicis guineensis), the seeds 
of which yield the palm oil of commerce The pillars of the 
gates arc apparelled with a graceful creeper from Brazil 
(Bignonia unguis), which flowers in April. 

Magnificent Immediately opposite the gates we are arrested in amaze- 

groitpof ment at the sight of a magnificent group of palms. An 

example of each kind indigenous to the island, together witli 
many noble specimens of foreign lands, appears in the stately 
assemblage, wreathed in flowering creepers and surrounded 
with sprays of elegant ferns. 

The Talipot Avenue, near the river on the left, and easily 
found by reference to our plan, is one of the most striking 
features we shall meet with, its shades of colour in green and 
gold affording delight to the artistic eye. 

All European ideas of a garden must be discarded if we 
wish to realise the general features of Peradeniya. There is 
an entire absence of formal arrangement, but the beautiful 
undulation of the land produces a grand effect — a garden and 
park combined, under conditions the most favourable for both. 
"Here Nature asserts herself almost uncontrolled; she gives 
us grandeur of form, wealth of foliage, exuberance of growth, 
and splendour of colour — unfading beauties but of a quite 
different kind from those of the sweet summer flower-gardens 
or the well-kept stoves and greenhouses of England." Of 




112. THE PAPAW. 




course the primary object of the garden is scientific instruction, 
but the picturesque must have been kept well in view in plant- 
ing the groups of trees and arranging the various families of 

If we turn to the left along Lake Road we shall notice 
many lofty and ornamental trees; amongst them the Amherstia 
nobilis, from Burma, while many are completely shrouded 
in flowering creepers, which trail in graceful forms from great 
heights. The Thunbergia, with its lovely bell-shaped blossoms, 
creeps in masses over the fine old tree trunks which it clothes 
in the same bountiful manner. Near this spot are to be seen 
gamboge trees and some curious African trees with long 
pendulous fruits. The Brazil nut tree (Bertholetia excelsa) 
is also in evidence here. Continuing in the same direction we 
soon arrive at the amateur photographer's paradise, the most 
photographed spot in the garden. Here is a charming pool, 
and round about it a multitude of singularly beautiful foliage 
subjects that can be combined with its glistening waters. 

As we approach the corner at the extreme south of the 
gardens, the noticeable features are varieties of succulent 
plants, the graceful papaw (Carica papaya) laden with its enor- 
mous fruits suspended beneath a crown of beautifully shaped 
leaves. The papaw (Plate 112) is frequently spoken of as the 
poor man's fruit from the fact of its fertility, its many useful 
properties and its general distribution, for it is seen in every 
poor man's garden. In appearance it resembles a green melon 
and has an orange-yellow flesh of sweet and pleasant flavour. 
Papain, from which it derives its digestive properties, is said to 
be superior to the animal product known as pepsin. The stem 
of the tree has a pretty pattern of diamond shape and fre- 
quently grows to a height of fifteen to twenty feet. Many 
young palms of exceedingly beautiful foliage will also be 
admired here, within the loop formed by the drive. Aloes, 
agaves and screw pines (Pandanus) abound. The screw pine, 
with its scarlet fruits, tempting only to monkeys, its glossy 
sword-like leaves, its forked cylindrical stem so beautifully 
chased, and its strange stilt-like roots, presents a fantastic 

We retrace our way through the Talipot Avenue, and pass 
the pond where a beautiful road and river view is the next to 
claim our admiration. The high banks of the river are in many 
parts clothed with climbing shrubs between the enormous 
thickets of bamboo, which wave their plumes over river and 

Having now explored the south-west corner we return to 
the oval group of palms near the entrance, and entering the 
Main Central Drive illustrated by plate 115 we find ourselves at 
once in a grove of exquisite beauty, its charming features being 




due to the careful planting of the shrubs and trees, which form 
a bank of ornamental and flowering plants rising gradually 
from the edge to the tall trees which constitute the background 
and overhanging canopy. The first turn on the left is Monu- 
ment Road, where we shall find the famous kauri pine of New 
Zealand, the curious candle tree with its pendulous fruits 
which resemble so many candles hanging by their wicks from 
the branches; and the most interesting double coconut palm 
(Lodoicea sechellamm). 

The Great Lawn will be noticed from the Monument Road, 
along the edge of which are fine trees, too numerous to mention 
here in detail. 

We return to the Main Central Drive, cross over it, and 
stroll down the Liana Drive, where we shall see the Ceylon 
satinwood tree (Chloroxylon swietenia), and an abundance of 
lianas hanging in festoons. These climbing- palms provide 
the cane used in furniture-making and matting. They grow to 
enormous lengths, sometimes hundreds of feet. 

Our next step is to make for a scene which to many is the 
most fascinating and longest remembered of all in the gardens 
— the Fernery. This, as our map will show, is to the right a 
little farther along the Main Central Drive, and is provided 
with a network of paths about which the visitor will wander 
in a maze of delight. Beneath the shade of lofty trees rivulets 
flow between banks carpeted with ferns of infinite variety, some 
so minute as to be hardly distinguishable from delicate moss, 
others robust and tree-like, and some even bearing fine tufts 
of feathery leaves as large as stately palms. Beautiful parasites 
rover the trunks of the protecting trees. It is always a 
veritable fairy scene. 

Near the Fernery is the Flower Garden (Plate 117). At the 
south end will be found a circular tank containing many inter- 
esting aquatic plants, including the plants from which Panama 
hats are made (Carludovica palmata), water poppies, the 
sacred lotus, Egyptian papyrus, the water hyacinth and others. 
Near the tank arc two fine rubber trees of the same species as 
the grove near the entrance (Ficus clastica). If we pass 
beneath the archway formed by the peculiar snake-like climber 
{Bnuhinia cwguinu), which we shall not fail to notice near the 
tank, the path will lead us to a shady walk amidst all manner 
of spice trees, especially nutmegs, cinnamon, allspice and 

In the Flower Garden there are shade houses for orchids 
and other shade-loving plants. To the north-east of the Flower 
Garden, as may be easily seen in our map, is the Palmyra 
Avenue (Borassus flabelliformis). Beyond the Palmyra Avenue 
is the Rose Garden, which should not be missed; and to the 









right of the avenue is a stretch of land devoted to tropical Peradeniya 
vegetables, including gourds, yams, sweet potatoes, tapioca, Qardens 
arrowroot, pineapples and man)' others. 

In the Bat Drive may generally be seen hundreds of so- Flying faxes 
called flying foxes hanging head downward like legs of mutton 
from the topmost branches of lofty trees. These curious bird- 
beasts (Pteropus edwardsii) are fruit eaters, and particularly 
fond of the seeds of the banyan tree (Ficus Indica). By day 
they sleep suspended as seen in our picture, and at night 
unhook their claws, and spreading their heavy wings, they fly 
around the trees in large numbers, making no little noise in 
their foraging exercises. 

A drive around the gardens by the river side is especially 
pleasant and affords many lovely views. At the north end 
there is a portion of ground allotted to nature herself, where 
in the jungle self-sown plants compete for the mastery in earth 
and air. 

The Museum situated near the Great Circle commands The .Museum 
beautiful views and is full of objects of great interest. Here 
will be found specimens of the many valuable timbers of Ceylon. 

Entymology is represented, and the specimens include the Entomology 
greatest wonders of the insect world, many of them so closely 
allied to the vegetable kingdom that only on close examination 
can the question be determined as to whether we are looking 
at an object having a sentient being, or a mere bundle of leaves 
or sticks. 

Volumes might be written about these Roval Botanic 
Gardens at Peradeniya ; but it is beyond the scope of the 
present work to give more than a general idea of them. Thev 
contain the most lavish display of tropical flora that has ever 
been brought together, and the practical benefit of such an 
establishment, with its large staff of accomplished experts, will 
be manifest to every visitor. 

Kaxdy (74m. 36c.). — By the most experienced travellers Kandy 
Kandy is usually awarded the high distinction of being the 1602 y;,/ 
most picturesque spot of the British Empire. The formation Formation 
of the town itself may be described as a basin in the hills, the 0J ' tke ' 07v ' 1 
bottom being occupied in one part by native quarters, temples 
and pansalas, and the rest by a picturesque lake, around which 
many miles of carriage drives, bridle roads and walks, at 
various elevations line the hill-sides, which are studded with 
pretty bungalows. A reference to our illustrations will give 
some idea of the way in which this beautiful little town clusters 
around the lake, amid all the wealth of foliage peculiar both 
to mountain and plain, which here meet and intermingle. 

Kandy is incomparably beautiful; but let it be at once Scenery 
understood that in thus describing it we are not limiting the 
epithet to the town and its immediate surroundings. It is 



Kandy rather the Kandyan country as a whole that is thus distin- 

guished, and this must be seen from the hill-tops which com- 
mand the far-reaching valleys where the Mahaweliganga rolls 
over rocky channels and through scenes of almost majestic 
beauty ; from the Hunasgcria peak ; from Mattanapatana ; from 
Lady Horton's Walk and other steep acclivities that encircle 
the town itself. Travellers too frequently, either from want 
of time or lack of energy, obtain but a faint idea of the varied 
beauty of the Kandyan district. 

Kandyan Our interest ill the Kandy of to-day will be strengthened by 

some knowledge of the previous records of the Kandyans and 
their little city. It has no very ancient history. It was for 
the first time adopted as the capital in the year 1592 by Wimala 
Dharma, the one hundred and sixty-fourth monarch who had 
reigned in Ceylon since the year B.C. 543, the earliest period 
of which any events are recorded. For more than a thousand 
years Anuradhapura was the capital, and the residence of the 
kings, till in a.d. 729 this once mighty city, the stupendous 
ruins of which we shall describe later, was forsaken, and hence- 
forth for some five hundred years Polonnaruwa became the 
capital. With the downfall of Polonnaruwa, consequent upon 
Malabar invasion, the prestige of the Sinhalese monarchy 
dwindled. From the year 1235 various places were selected for 
the capital, including Dambadeniya, Kurunegala, Gampola, 
Cotta and Sitawaka, until the final adoption of Kandy, which 
continued to be a place of royal residence until the reign of 
the last monarch, Sri Wikrama Rajah Sinha, 1798-1815. 

From the time of the first contact with Europeans, which 
took place in the early part of the sixteenth century, Kandy 
was for three hundred years the chosen ground where the 
Sinhalese made their stand against the aggressions of European 

stmagics intruders. The Portuguese first carried on a desultory struggle 

with the Kandyans for one hundred and fifty years, during 
which time they repeatedly gained possession of, and in great 
part destroyed, the city, but never succeeded in holding it to 
their own advantage, or for any considerable length of time. 
With the arrival of the Dutch in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century a policy which involved less fighting was 
adopted, but the attitude of proud defiance on the part of the 
mountaineers was not one whit changed in consequence. From 
the very beginning the Dutch recognised the futility of trying 
to gain and hold possession of the Kandyan kingdom. 

It remained for the British to accomplish the task ; nor was 

the British Jt by anv means an easy one for them. For twenty years after 

their first arrival in the year 1795, Kandy remained unsubdued. 
At length Kandy was in possession of the British. The King 
was captured at Medamahanuwara, deposed and deported to 
the fortress of Vellore in India, and at a convention of the 

with the 

At rival of 


Scale of Yards. 


chiefs held in the great Audience Hall of the palace his Kandy 
dominions were transferred to the British Crown. 

Good government speedily brought about contentment and hO^t °J 
the rapid advancement of civilisation. And recrudescence of the roads 
wars, which had lasted lor three hundred years, was guarded 
against by the construction of good military roads. It seems 
to us somewhat strange that no attempt was ever made by the 
Portuguese or Dutch during their three centuries of warfare 
with the Kandyans to compass their end by means ol roads. 
Roman history had afforded many notable examples of this 
mode of conquest from which they might have profited. The 
new roads of the British soon broke down the exclusive habits 
of the inland population, and the march of progress has been 
continued without interruption to this day. 

Freedom and the benefits that follow in its train have now Peace and 
become familiar to the Kandvan mind, and peace, prosperity c '"■•"'■" 
and contentment are now enjoyed by a people for centuries 
accustomed to serfdom, poverty and the excesses of unscru- 
pulous tyrants. 

Before we proceed to describe Kandy as it will be found by Hotel accom- 
the traveller to-day it may be useful to remark that during "Kandy"' 
the months of October to April it is always advisable for in- 
tending visitors to book hotel rooms in advance, ft frequently 
happens that several large steamships arrive at Colombo 
together, and a rush for Kandy is made by a large number of 
their passengers, who fill the hotels to their utmost capacity. 
It is safer therefore to telegraph for accommodation, unless it 
has been ascertained in Colombo that this course is unneces- 
sary. The local hostelries comprise the Queen's Hotel, which 
is a large and well-equipped institution, in a most convenient 
situation; the Florence Hotel, quiet, comfortable and home- 
like in picturesque grounds upon the lake road ; the Firs 
Hotel, and other smaller hotels and boarding houses. 

The population of Kandv is about 25,000, of whom only Population 
about one hundred are English. The form of local govern- andana 
ment is a municipal council of which the Government Agent is 
the chairman, and the area embraced by the municipality is 
about eleven square miles. The streets as well as the hotels 
and the principal bungalows are lighted by electricity. 

The exploration of the interesting features of the town may 
be easily and pleasantly done on foot, with the occasional use 
of a jinrickshaw. This useful little man carriage is obtain- 
able as easily as in Colombo, and the 'rickshaw cooly is under 
similar municipal regulations. He can be engaged bv the 
hour for a trifling sum. The jinrickshaw is especially useful 
if taken out on little expeditions and left bv the roadside 
during the exploration of places that are accessible only by 
pathways. Horse carriages can be obtained at the hotels. 

laiii i scape 



Kandy As we ascend the steep acclivities the beauty of the land- 

7 - scape approaches the sublime; we gaze across far-reaching 

valleys where the Mahaweliganga rolls over channels strewn 
with massive rocks, and through scenes of almost majestic 
beauty ; we see the Hunasgeria peak towering above vast 
stretches of vivid greenery where cacao groves are interspersed 
with masses of lofty palms, with here and there patches of the 
most lovely colour of all vegetation — the emerald hue of half- 
ripe paddy ; the grandeur of the Matale hills and the whole sur- 
rounding country which, when viewed from the heights that 
embrace the town, is a panorama of surpassing loveliness. 

Not the least charming feature of Kandy is the surprising 
mildness of the climate. Its height above the sea is scarcelv 
two thousand feet, and its distance from the equator is but 
six degrees ; yet a blanket at night is welcome and comfortable ; 
whereas in Colombo it is never required. The days are hot 
and somewhat glaring, owing to the lack of that red tint in 
the roads which is so comforting in Colombo ; but the refresh- 
ing early mornings and evenings admit of a goodly amount of 

The cosmopolitan character of the visitors will be at once 
apparent ; for not a week passes without the arrival of scores 
of fresh tourists from every part of the world. They come here 
to see the home of the later Sinhalese kings ; the famous and 
beautiful mountain-stronghold that was the last part of Ceylon 
to fall into the hands of the foreigner ; the Dalada Maligawa, 
or Temple of the Sacred Tooth of Buddha ; the quaint manners 
and customs of a people whose ancient dynasty endured for 
twenty-four centuries ; the interesting temples and religious 
ceremonies of the Buddhist cult ; the perfection of tropical 
botany and agriculture ; and the most beautiful walks and 
drives in the tropics. 

Two roads encircle the lake — the lower at the water's edge 
and the upper at a high elevation on the hill-sides. We choose 
the latter, and no sooner have we ascended to a moderate 
height, than a series of beautiful landscapes is presented to us 
through openings in the shrubs and trees which border the 
road. As we wind about the varied curves, the ever-changing 
aspect of the town and surrounding country presents a con- 
stant difference of outline and colour which is most enchanting. 
Lady _ By far the most interesting walk or drive in Kandy is that 

known as Lady Horton's, from which a distant view of the 
road just described can be obtained. Here we take our stand 
for a few moments and gaze across the lake at the tea estates 
upon the opposing slopes. There we notice a rugged cliff 
rising to the height of 4,119 feet. This is the highest point of 
the Kandy tea-growing district known as Hantanne. 



The uncultivated hill on the left of Hantanne is a point of Kandy 
vantage from which magnificent stretches of country may be Hantanne 
seen. It is commonly known as " Mutton Button," a corrup- 
tion of its correct name " Mattanapatana. " The ascent of this 
hill, which is about 3,200 feet high, is a somewhat arduous 
task, and occupies from two to three hours ; but our exertions 
are well rewarded by the splendid views which it commands. 

In winding course we continue to ascend until, at the north- Dumiara 
eastern point, the valley of Dumbara bursts into view. In 
spite of the clearings made for cultivation, it is still beautifully 
wooded. The lovely jungle is, however, fast giving way to 
the less beautiful but more remunerative tea and coco planta- 
tions. This district is about 12,000 acres in extent, about 
7,000 of which are now under cultivation. The elevation, 
which is from 700 to 1,200 feet above sea-level, is found to be 
most suitable for the cultivation of a large variety of products, 
especially when, as is the case with Dumbara, the rainfall is 
moderate and well distributed, being about sixty inches in the 
year. We see, therefore, in Dumbara, fields of cacao or 
chocolate trees with large rubber trees planted amongst them 
for shade. Some estates consist of fields of pepper, areca nuts, 
coconuts, cacao and coffee, while here and there are fields of 
tea bushes interspersed with coconuts. Vanilla and carda- 
moms are also represented. The district is, however, chiefly 
noted for its cacao or chocolate, of which it has upwards of 
five thousand acres. 

Beyond the Dumbara valley we notice in the far distance 
the outline of a noble mountain which is known as the Knuckles. 
The top of this mountain is shaped by four distinct peaks 
resembling the knuckles of the hand, from which it derives its 
name. It is an important district under cultivation for tea, 
cinchona, cardamoms, and other products. 

We have mentioned Lady Horton's Walk before describing 
the town itself, because the traveller is recommended to take 
the earliest opportunity of seeing the panorama of the Kan- 
dyan country spread out before him from these heights. The 
entrance to the walk will be found in King Street near the 
gates of the King's Pavilion. The length of the walk is about 
three miles. 

One of the chief objects of interest to all travellers, and The Temfie 
generally the first visited, is the Dalada Maligawa or Temple 
of the Tooth. 

The Temple and the Pattirippuwa, which is the name of 
the octagonal building on the right of the main entrance, are 
enclosed by a very ornamental stone wall and a moat. The 
Temple itself is concealed by the other buildings within the 
enclosure. Upon entering we pass through a small quadrangle 

of the Tooth 




and turn to the right up a flight of stone steps to the Temple. Kandy 
The most noticeable features are grotesque carvings, highly- 
coloured frescoes, representing - torments in store lor various 
classes of sinners, and images of Buddha. A most ear-splitting- 
noise is kept up by tom-tom beating and the playing of various 
native instruments. On either side are flower-sellers, and the 
atmosphere is heavy with the perfume of lovely white blossoms. 
Each worshipper in the Temple brings an offering of some 
fragrant ilower. The beautiful Plumiera, with its pure creamy 
petals and yellow heart, is the most popular sacrificial blossom, 
and this, together with jasmine and oleander, is everywhere 
strewn by the devout Sinhalese. If our visit happens to be 
made on a day of high festival when the adored relic is to be 
exposed, the scene will be enlivened by the presence of a large 
number of yellow-robed priests, gaily-caparisoned elephants, 
which are kept by the chiefs for ceremonial purposes, and the 
chiefs themselves, who appear in their rich white and gold 
dresses and jewel-bedig'ht hats. They are naturally handsome 
men, and when attired in full court dress, they look very im- 
posing. To begin with, they contrive to wind about their 
persons some hundred and fifty yards of fine silk or muslin, 
embroidered in gold. This drapery, tapered finely down to the 
ankles, ends in neat little frills. Round the waist is fastened 
a yelvet gold-embroidered belt. Over a shirt, fastened with 
magnificent jewelled studs, they wear a jacket with very full 
sleeves, fastened tight above the elbow, and made of brocaded 
silks of brightest hue. Their hats are of very curious shape, 
even more lavishly embroidered than the jackets, and studded 
with jewels. Crowds of reverent worshippers of both sexes, 
apparelled in costumes of brilliant colours and great variety, 
assemble in the spacious precincts. 

We notice a narrow doorway with two pairs of elephants' 
tusks on either side, and some very curious metal work on 
the door itself; this leads to a steep narrow staircase, at the 
end of which is a door most elaborately inlaid with silver and 
ivory; this is the entrance to the little sanctuary which con- 
tains the jealously-guarded sacred tooth, the palladium of 
Ceylon, and an object of unbounded reverence to four hundred 
millions of people. Within this chamber, in dim religious 
light, is a solid silver table, behind which the huge silver-gilt 
Dagoba, or bell-shaped shrine, with six inner shrines protecting 
the tooth, is usually visible through thick metal bars. But on 
great occasions the nest of priceless shrines is brought forward, 
and the tooth is displayed, upheld by a twist of golden wire, 
from the heart of the large golden lotus blossom. The shrines 
are all of pure gold, ornamented with magnificent rubies, 
pearls, emeralds, and catseyes, and the last two are quite 



A udienc 



Kandy covered with rubies. Besides these treasures, there arc here 

many priceless offerings and gifts of kings, including an image 
of Buddha carved out of one great emerald, about three inches 
long by two deep. 
The Oriental We are glad soon to retreat from this small chamber, so 

hot, and filled with almost overpowering perfume of the 
Plumiera blossoms, and to visit the Oriental Library in the 
Octagon. In the balcony we pause awhile and look around 
upon the motley crowd below. The chief priest with great 
courtesy now shows us a very rare and valuable collection of 
manuscripts of great antiquity. Most of them are in Pali and 
Sanskrit characters, not written but pricked with a stylus on 
narrow strips of palm leaf about three inches wide and sixteen 
or twenty inches long. These strips form the leaves of the 
books, and are strung together between two boards which form 
the covers. Many of the covers are elaborately decorated with 
embossed metal, and some are even set with jewels. Besides 
the sacred and historical writings, there are works on astro- 
nomy, mathematics and other subjects. 

The Audience Hall is in grounds adjoining those of the 
Temple of the Tooth. It is an historic building, and should be 
visited alike for its association with the ceremonial of the 
Kandyan kings and for the sake of its architecture. In the 
terrible times that preceded the British occupation it is to be 
feared that it was too often a court of tyranny and injustice ; 
but it now serves as the forum presided over by the District 
Judge of Kandy. 

Behind the Audience Hall is the Kandy Kachcheri, or 
offices of the Government Agent of the province, an extensive 
and handsome building, but, alas ! having no feature of any 
kind that harmonises with its surroundings. 

In the same locality is an old building, said to have been 
a portion of the palace of the queens in the days of the 
monarchy, but now used as a museum for treasures of Kan- 
dyan art and craftsmanship ; it is, moreover, the home of the 
Kandyan Art Association, a society formed to encourage the 
preservation of the best traditions of Sinhalese art, which, 
previous to the introduction of Western influence, possessed 
a character that was at once meritorious and distinctive. The 
native cunning of the low-country craftsman may be said to 
have diminished to a greater extent than that of the Kandyan, 
who, owing to his being so completely shut out from the rest of 
the world down to the nineteenth century, was limited to the 
resources of his own immediate locality and to the craftsman- 
ship that had descended from father to son for many genera- 
tions. The result of this isolation is seen in some special 
peculiarity that characterises all the ancient handiwork that 





may be met with, whether in architecture, painting, textile Kandy 

work, implements of ordinary use, or articles ol personal 

adornment. Skill developed among social conditions ol service 

tenure. Under this tenure the craftsman held lands that «%%~f 

sufficed to provide him with food, and prosecuted his art 

according to the laws of his caste, for its own sake and not for 

monev. His personal needs were so modest and few that his 

thoughts and his attention were never distracted by anxiety 

for the morrow. The main principles of his art came down 

as the legacy of a long line of ancestors who had been engaged 

in its mysteries, and "he applied his skill, both hereditary and 

acquired, to the needs and the fancies of his patrons, and, like 

the masters of the Middle Ages, found in every detail of his 

work such pleasure and delight that even the meanest objects 

were transfigured into things of beauty. The traveller may 

see the truth of this in every antique survival of earlier times. 

But the Kandyan craftsman is even now an artist, and although 

he is no longer uninfluenced by the foreigner, the instinct to 

follow the traditional lines is the strongest element in him. 

Part of the old Queen's Palace adjoining the Museum is ffif™'™// 
given up to workshops where the traveller may sec articles Association 
of silver and brass-work in process of manufacture, may even 
select a design for any article he fancies and sec it in its 
stages of fabrication if he has time to pa}- an occasional visit. 
Our illustration (Plate 124) depicts some of the Kandyan art 
workers following their calling in the premises of the museum. 
Their modest and simple methods will surprise and interest us. 
Seated upon the ground and surrounded by the needful appli- 
ances, the roughly constructed blow-pipe, the earthenware 
chattie containing a small charcoal fire and the box of self-made 
tools, thev fashion the most delicate work. Many a treasure 
representing the inherited artistic temperament of the Kan- 
dvan craftsman has been secured by the traveller from the 
institution in recent vears, and we recommend the collector to 
avail himself of the present opportunity, as no man can say 
how long the features which distinguish the inherited genius of 
the Kandyan artist may hold their own against the mechanical 
influences that have alreadv corrupted Western handicrafts. 

In the vicinity of the buildings referred to above is the T/uoia 
old palace of the Kandyan kings, or at any rate a considerable /laacl 
portion of it, now occupied bv the Government Agent of the 
Central Province as a private residence. 

Opposite the Old Palace is a walled enclosure of temple 
buildings containing the Xata Dewale, a dagaba, a bo tree 
provided with a bodhi-malmva or platform with an altar for 
offerings, and several halls for educational purposes. The 
principal entrance to this sacred enclosure provides the artist 


Kandy with an excellent subject. Opposite this is the JMaha or Vishnu 

r/u King's Dewale. This temple is on the borders of the King's Pavilion 

grounds, which are entered from King Street. The King's 
Pavilion is the most charming of the residences of the Governor 
of the Colony, and there is nothing prettier in Kandy than the 
garden in which it stands. When his Excellency is not in 
residence the public are admitted to the grounds. 

Noble trees and ornamental plants abound everywhere and 
wild nature is still found compatible with effective artificial 
arrangement. Fine specimens of the Traveller's Tree are very 
noticeable here. This tree is so called from the useful property 
possessed by the leaves of sending forth a copious supply of 
water, when pierced at the part where they burst forth from 
the stem. Nor are the trees and shrubs the only features of 
interest in this delightful garden ; the creatures that appear 
everywhere lend their aid to charm the naturalist : geckoes, 
bloodsuckers, chameleons, lovely bright green lizards, about a 
foot in length, which, if interfered with, turn quite yellow in 
body, while the head becomes bright red ; glorious large butter- 
flies, with most lustrous wings; blue, green, and scarlet 
dragon-flies of immense size; and gay birds, giving life and 
colour to the scene. Millepedes are amongst the creatures 
constantly crawling about; they are about a foot long, as thick 
as one's thumb, of a very glossy jet black colour, and possessed 
of a large number of bright yellow legs. The strangest insects, 
too, are seen amongst the shrubs, so near akin to plant life that 
it is impossible to believe them to be alive until they are seen 
to move. 
Church of Opposite the entrance to the King's Pavilion is the English 

St. Paul Church of St. Paul, which was built about the middle of the 

nineteenth century. There are some features of interest in 
the interior, the woodwork particularly testifying to the skill 
of the Sinhalese in carving. At the west end there is a monu- 
ment to officers of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment who served in 
the Crimean War, and in the south transept there is a window 
erected by the Cevlon Mounted Infantry in memory of their 
comrades who fell in South Africa. 

Next to St. Paul's Church, upon turning the corner which 
leads to the Queen's Hotel, is the Police Court, which may 
afford some interest to the visitor who has never before wit- 
nessed the proceedings in an Eastern court of justice. Near 
the entrance will be noticed a fountain erected by the planters 
of Cevlon to commemorate the visit of his Majesty King 
Edward VII. in 1875. 
... , . The Victoria Esplanade, with its charming and useful lawn 

Victoria 1 ' o 

Esplanade that stretches from the Queen s Hotel to the Temple, is the 

rendezvous of the public on all occasions of festivity. It is 
adorned on one side by a picturesque wall after the character 


Wace Park 


Kandy of that which surrounds the Temple, and on the other by the 

handsome wall of the grounds known as the Temple En- 
closure. On the lawn will be noticed a monument to the 
members of the Ceylon Planters' Rifle Corps who fell in the 
South African War; and another commemorating Sir Henry 
Ward, one of Ceylon's ablest Governors. 

For a short walk or drive few places provide a more 
interesting and beautiful road than that which encircles the 
Kandy Lake. The formation of this exceedingly ornamental 
piece of water is attributed to Wickrama Rajasinha, the last 
of the Kandyan kings. Some of its greatest aesthetic attrac- 
tions over and above its lovely situation are however due to 
the interest taken in the improvements of Kandy by many of 
the Governors and Government Agents who have lived there 
from time to time. Thus Sir William Gregory added the 
ornamental wall upon the bund. The upper road affords the 
best views, amongst which is that depicted by our photo- 
graph (Plate 120), taken from Wace Park, a small ledge on the 
hill-side tastefully laid out at the suggestion of the late Mr. 
Wace when he was resident as Government Agent. No visitor 
should fail to take a stroll to this spot, about five minutes' walk 
from the Queen's Hotel; and those who want specially pretty 
subjects for the camera should obtain a pass from the Secretary 
of the Municipal Council, or from the Queen's Hotel, to be 
admitted to the grounds which enclose the Reservoir of the 
Municipal Water Supply. 

This reservoir is reached by the road which passes at the 
back of Wace Park, the distance being half a mile. The 
lovelv shaded walks around the reservoir, with constant pretty- 
openings disclosing vistas across the glistening waters, pre- 
sent an opportunity to the enthusiastic amateur photographer 
that should not be missed. Some proof of this may be 
gathered from plates 126 to 129. 
Gregory The Gregory Road, which is the upper of the two lake 

roads, provides many beautiful views, and is most convenient 
for a short walk or drive in the early morning when the 
mountain air is keen and invigorating. Indeed, the first stroll 
along this road is one of very slow progress, and as a rule 
the fresh comer will not go far the first time, but return again 
and again at his leisure. 

The streets of Kandy will interest the visitor only in so 
far as they afford a glimpse of native town life and occupation 
in the bazaars ; this is, however, always amusing to the 
visitor who is a stranger to Eastern customs. In Kandy it 
is much pleasanter to visit the bazaars than in Colombo, owing 
to the cooler atmosphere and the wider and cleaner streets ; 
indeed one may walk through them in comfort. Trincomalee 
Street and Colombo Street should at any rate be visited. Near 




the bottom of King Street may be seen the only remnant of Kandy 
a Kandyan chief's walawwa or residence that has survived 
from the time of the Kandyan kings. 

Ward Street is the chief thoroughfare of Kandy and pos- 
sesses the European stores, banks, the Queen's Hotel, the 
Kandy Club and the Victoria Commemoration buildings which 
are occupied as the headquarters of the Planters' Association 
of Ceylon. This edifice was erected by the Planters of Ceylon 
as their memorial of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 
Turning to the left at the bottom of Ward Street the road 
becomes very picturesque, and on the way to the railway 
station the market is seen fronted by a handsome garden of 
palms, the most prominent of which is the talipot. Upon near- 
ing the railway station an extensive building will be noticed on 
the right, amidst flowering shrubs and noble trees — the Post 
Office. This part of Kandy is known as the Vale of Bogambra, 
the scene of many a tragedy in the time of the Kandyan 
monarchy, including the tyrannous and ghastly execution of the 
Ehclapola family described in most works on Ceylon. 







1,534 a" 1 


In the railway system the Matale line begins at Peradeniya 
Junction, Kandy being served by it. The distances of the 
stations given in the following itinerary are therefore reckoned 
from Peradeniya Junction. 

Mahaiyawa (4m. 71c). — This station as will be seen from 
our map is practically in Kandy itself, being only one mile 
from Kandy station. 

Katugastota (7m. 25c). — Katugastota (three and a half 
miles north of Kandy) is a picturesque and flourishing suburb 
of Kandy situated on the Mahaweliganga at the point where 
the Matale carriage road crosses it by an iron bridge. It is 
much frequented by visitors who have no time to make more 
distant excursions. One of the attractions consists of a con- 
siderable stud of elephants belonging to the Kandyan chief 
Dunuwilla whose walawwa is on the bank of the river. They 
frequently engage in river sports under the direction of their 
keepers to the amusement and delight of passengers who pay a 
flying visit to the mountain capital. 

Wattegama (11m. 33c.). — Wattegama is famous for its 
flourishing cacao and tea estates which contribute considerable 
freight to the railway. The village is provided with a rest- 
house containing four bedrooms ; and it is generally possible to 
hire a carriage and pair of horses at the rate of one rupee per 
mile. Hackeries are always available. 



Near the station a road connects Wattegama with the 
Panwila road. It is the station for the districts of Panwila, 
Hunasgiriya, Madulkele, Kelebokka and Knuckles. 

Ukuwella (17m. 52c). — Ukuwella is a small village about 
three miles to the south of Matale. The railway station that 
takes its name from the village serves a large number of 
important estates. 

Matale (21m. 9c). — Matale is the terminus of this branch 
of the broad gauge railway. It is a place of considerable 
importance as the chief town of a large planting district con- 
taining nearly a thousand square miles, the most northerly 
in which Europeans have opened up estates ; it is under an 
Assistant Government Agent, and is divided into three sub- 
divisions, Mdtale South, East and North, each under a Rate- 

Upon arrival we find a comfortable rest-house fitted with 
every convenience for the traveller and well provisioned. The 
town contains one of the largest purely native bazaars in 
Ceylon, extending for almost a mile in one long street shaded 
by a fine avenue of rain trees, so called from the circumstance 
that at night the leaves fold into a kind of sac in which the 
moisture condenses and at sunrise when the leaves open is dis- 
charged in quite a shower. Here are to be seen the necessaries 
and luxuries for the supply of the native community throughout 
the large and important planting district of which Mdtale is 
the centre. All the shops are after the fashion of open stalls, 
and the traders, their goods and transactions, from one end 
of the street to the other, are open to the gaze of passers-by. 
The barber, the tinker, the merchant of gay-coloured cloths, 
and the curry-stuff vendor, are all doing a roaring trade. 
The mellifluous tones of Ramasamy's voice are unceasing, and 
the stranger will not fail to be struck with surprise at the 
inordinate amount of talking required by every trifling bar- 

The scenery has the same characteristics as the Kandyan 
district, and is especially beautiful in its wealth and variety 
of tropical foliage. The hills rise to an altitude of five 
thousand feet, and are wooded to the summits, save where 
clearings have been made for the cultivation of coffee, 
cacao, and tea; they exhibit fine specimens of some of the 
most remarkable trees in Ceylon, including many iron- 
wood trees, with crimson-tipped foliage and delicate flowers. 
The northern division of Matale reaches to Nalanda, on 
the main road to the famous rock temples of Dambulla ; 
so that the large number of visitors who now journey 
to Dambulla pass through the heart of this district and see 
the fine tea, cacao and rubber estates for which it is famous. 



Scenery of 



Their total extent is about sixty thousand acres, of which 
nearly half is cultivated. The elevation being from 1,200 to 
4,000 feet, mixed planting is popular; and we find, in addition 
to tea and cacao, cardamoms, coconuts, areca nuts, annatto, 
kola, rubber, cinchona, vanilla, pepper, sapan, and sago. There 
are thousands of acres of rich forest which contains much 
ebony, satinwood, halmilla, and palu. 

Of climate, scenery, and products Matale affords great 
variety. It has its lowlands, with their coconut, vanilla and 
cacao groves, and the warm glow of tropical sunshine; hills 
of moderate elevation, in some parts cultivated, in others wild 
and forest-clad ; lofty mountains, with their cool and in- 
vigorating atmosphere so inviting to Europeans ; and to the 
north it stretches away in spurs which gradually decrease 
amidst a vast wilderness of forest and scrub, the haunt of 
the elephant, leopard, buffalo and bear. Big game is to be 
found in proximity to estates, and is still more plentiful a 
day's march to the north. Sambur, barking deer, and pig sport 
afford good hunting, while the leopard, bear, and buffalo are 
available as victims for the sportsman's gun. Few planting 
districts can boast of sporting grounds at once so good and 
so accessible. 

But Matale has also its antiquarian interest, for here is AfowilmrS 
situated the ancient rock temple Aluwihare, which claims our 
attention both as an extremely picturesque spot and one to 
which is attached considerable literary interest. We proceed 
for two miles past the town upon the Matale-Anuradhapura 
road, then turn aside to the left following a jungle path till 
we come upon a flight of stone steps which lead to what 
appears to have been originally a cleft in the rock (Plate 132). 
On the left side runs a verandah, a modern tiled erection, which 
conceals the entrance to a cavern sacred as the scene of King 
Walagambahu's convention of monks in the first century B.C., 
at which were transcribed the sayings of Buddha hitherto pre- 
served only by tradition. 

Prior to 1910 Matale was the starting point for the mail 
coach service to Dambulla and Trincomalee, but in July of that 
year a motor mail service, under the control of the railway, was 
inaugurated from Anuradhapura (on the northern section of the 
railway) to Trincomalee, and the mail coach service from Matale 
to that place was discontinued. 

The traveller, therefore, who wishes to visit the rock temples Dambulla 
of Dambulla and the ancient rock fortress of Sigiri (a trip which 
is strongly recommended) should either engage a motor car at 
Kandy or a waggonette and pair of horses which can be hired 
in Matale. The first stage of the journey reaches Nalanda 
fourteen and a half miles from Matale. Here will be found a 


Nalanda good rest-house, standing in picturesque grounds and em- 

bowered in remarkably fine tamarind trees. It is neatly 
furnished and comfortable, and will serve as a convenient 
halting place for refreshment. Upon leaving Nalanda we shall 
notice that habitations become less frequent and dense forest 

Dambulla begins to take the place of cultivated lands. Dambulla is 

reached at the twenty-ninth mile from Matale. The village 
consists of a double row of mud huts, which do duty as native 
shops, and extends for about two hundred yards at the foot of 
a solitary mass of rock which rises from the plain to a height 
of about five hundred feet and is about a mile in circumference. 
Near the summit is a series of five caverns which in their 
natural state were selected as hiding places by King 
Walagambahu upon his being driven by the Tamils from his 
throne at Anuridhapura in the first century B.C. After fifteen 
years of exile he regained his throne, and in gratitude for the 
protection they had afforded him, transformed them into 

Rock temples These caverns are entered from a ledge near the summit 

of a huge boulder of dark gneiss five hundred feet high and 
two thousand in length. The ascent is made by a steep but 
picturesque stairway cut in the natural rock. At the top of 
this rock bursts into view a landscape that apart from the 
interest of the temples would well repay a more toilsome 
climb. Ranges of mountains stretch away over the Kandyan 
province in the dim grey distance ; the rock of Sigiri rises 
in solitary grandeur from the dense forest to the east ; and 
beneath us lie the rice fields granted by the ancient kings as 
the endowment of the temples. 

sigiri At Dambulla there is a spacious and comfortable rest- 

house where, if we are travelling by horse conveyance, we shall 
find it convenient to put up for the night and equip ourselves 
with information about Sigiri, whither we should proceed at 
dawn. There is excellent accommodation for the traveller at 
the small rest-house quite near the rock, but it is desirable 
to notify the rest-house keeper beforehand of the intended 
visit as there are only two bedrooms, and food supplies have 
also to be arranged. For those travelling by motor car, it is 
recommended that they should go straight on the same day to 
Sigiri after visiting the Dambulla rock temples. 

Kasyaf.a The historic interest which attaches to this lonely crag 

centres in the story of the parricide King Kasyapa, who, after 
depriving his father Dhatu Sen of his throne and life, sought 
security by converting this rock into an impregnable fortress. 
Although it has been said that Sigiri was a stronghold in 
prehistoric times, we have no account of it earlier than the 
fifth century, the time of Kasyapa, the particulars of whose 
reign related in the Mahawansa are considered specially reliable 

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133. SIGIRI. 




A Circular 
Tour by 
Motor Car 

as being written by the Buddhist monk Mahanamo, an eye 
witness of the troublous times that he describes. It is, more- 
over, the only contemporary account of Sigiri that has come 
to light. 

At daybreak, if in a horse conveyance, we drive six miles 
to Inamalawa, where we branch off through the jungle by a 
road which has recently been made quite practicable for car- 
riages and motor cars. This road is very picturesque, and 
the jungle gay with birds of brightest plumage and alive 
with wild animals. Troops of monkeys are frequently seen 
and jackals here and there put in an appearance. 

At length after about six miles of this road we emerge 
into the open and of a sudden Sigiri appears rising abruptly 
from the plain. An artificial lake, formed under the south 
side of the rock, helps to form a striking picture (Plate 133). 
There are traces of massive stone walls enclosing about fifty 
acres round the base of the rock and forming the first line 
of fortification. Upon a nearer approach we observe that 
terraces were formed on the slopes which lead to the per- 
pendicular side of the rock ; they are faced with stone and 
were doubtless constructed for purposes of defence. Here and 
there huge boulders have been carved into foundations for 
halls, and into luxurious baths (Plate 134). 

We cannot here give all the interesting details of archi- 
tectural remains that have been discovered by the explorations 
of the Achaeological Commissioner of the Ceylon Government. 
The traveller will find some astonishing remains laid bare by 
recent excavation, and if he will take the trouble to ascend 
to the top of the rock by the aid of the protective handrails 
now provided he will see the remains of spacious apartments, 
flights of stairs in quartz, a carved throne, courtyards, 
passages and innumerable other signs of a remarkably 
luxurious retreat. 

A visit to Sigiri results in the very agreeable feeling that 
we have seen one of the most fascinating and romantic spots 
that the old-world scenes of any country can afford. The 
warm red tones of its cliffs, the beautifully worked quartz stairs 
of its ruined galleries and terraces, the picturesque lay of its 
massive ruins, the grandeur of the forest which surrounds it, 
and the waters of its lake, with the dark and mysterious 
reflections amidst the lotus leaves that o'erspread the surface, 
combine to form an impression that will never fade from the 

A most enjoyable circular tour by motor car, occupying 
four or five days, may be made from Kandy, embracing the 
places above described and visiting in addition Polonnaruwa, 
Kanthalai, Trincomalee, and Anuradhapura, returning to 
Kandy via Dambulla and Matale. The first day should be given 


to Sigiri, and for the first night Habarane rest-house on the 
Trincomalee road, five miles beyond the turn to Sigiri, will be 
found a convenient hostelry. Polonnaruwa is reached by a 
minor road from Habarane, the distance being twenty-seven 
miles. At the fourteenth mile we reach the lake of Minneria, 
which is one of the most exquisite things in Ceylon. Killarney 
and other well-known beautiful expanses of water and wood- 
land may be mentioned in comparison, but at Minneria there 
arc many additional charms, of which climate is not the least. 
The islands and woodlands unexplored for many centuries 
are so thoroughly things of nature. Then the creatures every- 
where add to the romance ; the myriads of curious birds, 
many of great size and magnificent plumage ; the crocodiles 
lazily basking upon the banks, and the spotted deer often 
darting across the open glades. Even the knowledge that the 
elephant, the bear, and the leopard, though out of sight, are 
present in large numbers, lends additional interest to a scene 
which is beyond description. 

The city of Polonnaruwa ranks high amongst the 
archaeological wonders of the world. That the Sinhalese should 
have been able to build and maintain a city of such dimensions, 
wealth, beauty and power, is evidence of the high qualities of 
the race in early times. It is obviously impossible to give an 
adequate description of its interesting palaces, temples, shrines, 
and monasteries within the limits of this small handbook, and 
the visitor is therefore recommended to provide himself with 
one of the following books: "The Ruined Cities of Ceylon," 
by Henry W. Cave; "Guide to the Ancient Capitals of 
Ceylon," by John Still; " The Book of Ceylon," by Henry W. 

A day having been spent in exploring the ruins it will be 
convenient to return to Habarane for the night, and on the 
following morning to proceed to Kanthalai (28 miles). After 
travelling through the dense forest, it is with a shock of 
delight that the monotony is broken by the sudden appear- 
ance of a beautiful lake stretching away for miles to dreamy 
ranges of distant hills, whose beauties are reflected in its calm 
waters. Such is Kanthalai, another of Ceylon's marvellous 
ancient irrigation tanks. We shall gain some idea of the 
artifice by which it was formed, as for more than a mile we 
proceed upon the great causeway faced with enormous blocks 
of granite that forms its southern boundary. Near the Trin- 
comalee end is a comfortable rest-house for the accommodation 
of large parties of sportsmen and travellers, for the fields 
which are irrigated from the lake are unrivalled as snipe 

We have now only one more stage to Trincomalee — twenty- 
six miles of the same undulating forest road. 


Trincomaiee There are some five or six magnificent harbours in the 

Tiu harbour world, and Trincomaiee is one of them. Situated on the north- 
cast of the island, it faces the Bay of Bengal and overlooks the 
whole eastern coast of India. The entrance, which faces 
south-east, is guarded by two projecting headlands, approach- 
ing to within about seven hundred yards of each other. When 
it is borne in mind that the monsoons blow from the north-east 
and south-west the importance of this feature is obvious. The 
rocky headlands have a beautiful effect upon the landscape, 
which is made up of a placid expanse of water dotted with 
wooded islets that seem to float on its surface, rich tropical 
forest covering the acclivities that border its coasts, and a 
distant background of lofty mountains. 

The form of the harbour is irregular, and the numerous 
indents of its coast line supply many a charming feature. 
Some of the islands are romantic in appearance as well as 
association, and notably amongst them Sober Island, once the 
favourite resort of the officers of the East Indies squadron. 
Special points of interest to the traveller are Fort Frederick, 
with its rocky headland known as Saami Rock, where weird 
Hindu ceremonies are performed ; the pretty drive along the 
eastern side of the harbour; and the magnificent banyan tree 
in the grounds of Admiralty House. The European residents 
of Trincomaiee, since its abandonment as a naval station, are 
almost limited to the resident officials ; the native population 
being about eleven thousand. The rest-house is capacious, and 
good provisions are readily obtainable. 

From Trincomaiee there is a direct road (50 miles) to 
Anuradhapura, whither we now proceed, and which will be 
found fully described on pages 172 to 202. 




We now resume the Main Line itinerary which we left at Main Line 
Peradeniya Junction in order to visit Kandy and the places 
situated on the Matale branch. The main line at Peradeniya 
Junction turns abruptly to the south and passes through the 
very heart of the greatest tea districts of this celebrated tea- 
growing country. First we traverse a fertile and beautiful 
valley where rice fields form a charming foreground to hills 
that are clothed with palms in great variety and luxuriance. 
At the eighth mile from Peradeniya Junction we reach the 
town of Gampola, for a time the seat of Sinhalese power. 

Gampola (78m. 25c). — As the last of the native capitals of Gampola 
Ceylon before the removal of the moribund dynasty to Cotta 
in 1410, Gampola can claim to be a place of considerable 
interest. The city was founded in the year 1347 by King 
Bhuwaneka Bahu IV., who reigned there for nine years. 
Remains of that period are still to be seen at the Niyangam- 
paya wihare, about one mile from Gampola station and adjoin- 
ing Mariawatte tea estate. This temple, which was built by 
Bhuwaneka Bahu upwards of five centuries ago and restored 
by the last king of Kandy in the year 1804, still contains some 
of the original work, the stone carving of the basement being 
a good example of the fourteenth century work. But Gampola 
must have been a place of note in still earlier times ; for the 
ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahawansa records that King 
Wijaya Bahu visited it in the eleventh century. King Wick- 
rama Raja Sinha in the year 1804 granted a sannas or deed 
engraved upon copper to this temple, bestowing lands upon it 
and ending in the following terms, detailing the punishments 
that will wait upon the sacrilegious thief : — 


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136. GAMPOLA. 



deed of gift 

" His Majesty has been pleased to grant the same as if Main Line 
uttered by the mouth of the goddess Saraswati, and he made 
the gift at a happy time, sitting in a golden throne in the form 
of Sakkraya at the city of Senkanda Sailabidhana Siriward- 
hanapura, which abounds with all riches; and this sannas, in 
accordance with the order and command of his Majesty, has 
been granted on Monday, the second day of the increasing 
moon of the month Medindina, in the year of Saka 1726, called 
Raktaksa. He who shall cut, break or take even a blade of 
grass or any wood or fruit or anything belonging to Buddha 
shall be born as a pretaya, but anyone who shall make any 
offerings shall enjoy felicity in the Divyalokas and enter into 
Nirvana. He who shall take bv force anything that belongs 
to Buddha, with intent to appropriate to himself or give it to 
others, shall become a worm in ordure for a period of sixty 
thousand years. " 

It is curious that, notwithstanding the awful nature of the 
penalty, in the year 1907 the golden image of Buddha, worth 
^,2,000, was stolen from this wihdre. The golden image is 
still missing, and the thief has escaped British justice, which 
is a matter of very trifling moment in comparison with the 
sixty thousand years of punishment that are in store for him. 

The visitor to Gampola will find the local accommodation 
good both at the railway station and the rest-house which is 
quite near to it. Carriages, with single horse or a pair, can 
be hired at moderate rates. Jinrickshaws are also procurable. 

A large number of tea estates are served by the Gampola 
station, from which upwards of six thousand tons of tea are 
despatched annually. To the east of the railway stretch some 
districts that were the first to be stripped of their virgin forest 
by the European. To the west lies the picturesque district of 
Dolosbage, which lends itself admirably to pictorial treatment ; 
but with so many claiming attention some must of necessity 
be left with merely passing reference. The old town of Gam- 
pola is also the railway terminus for the beautiful districts 
of Pussellawa and Ramboda, through which an excellent 
macadamised road passes, and over the heights of Nuwara 
Eliya, to descend again amongst the rolling patanas and deep 
glens of the Uva country, which we shall see later. This road 
scales the mountain slopes by zigzag cuttings, now on the 
mountain side, now passing through narrow defiles, and 
onwards upon the verge of deep abysses, beautiful everywhere, 
in many parts enchanting, and in one, the pass above Ram- 
boda, magnificent. 

Ulapane (82m. 75c). — Ulapane is a village among tea 
estates, with no special attractions for the visitor. The name 
is said to be derived from a Sinhalese word, meaning " the 





Main Line scene of the impalement," from the circumstance that the 

owner of the village in the reign of Raja Sinha I. was impaled 
for high treason. There is also a tradition that a man of this 
village who first traced the remarkable work of irrigation 
known as the Raja Ela (the king's stream) which waters the 
paddy fields of the district for twelve miles, after being 
honoured by the king and rewarded for his skill, fell into 
disgrace and was also impaled. 

Nawalapitiya Nawalapitiya (87m. 29c). — At Nawalapitiya, the up- 

country headquarters of the railway, a powerful engine is 
placed in the rear of the train to assist in conveying it up the 
steep gradients that begin here and continue until we reach the 
summit level of Pattipola at an elevation of 6,225 feet. Nawala- 
pitiya is a busy little town of about 2,500 inhabitants. Its 
native bazaars serve a large planting area where the Tamil 
cooly from Southern India is chiefly employed. The general 
characteristics of the place are therefore something like those 
we have met with at Matale. 

Instead of a rest-house the traveller will find here quite 
close to the station a modest but comfortable hostelry called 
the Central Hotel. 

Amba°amum,i We are now about to pass through the tea estates of 

Ambagamuwa, the wettest planting district in Ceylon, having 
an annual rainfall of about 200 inches, or eight times that of 
London. We ascend in snake-like windings, now along the 
almost precipitous rock trimly cut like the scarp of a fortress, 
now right through masses of solid gneiss, and out into the open 
eminence again, the scene changing with every curve. At one 
point we come upon a sight especially interesting, but which 
will nevertheless elude all but the expectant traveller — the 
entrance and exit of the Hog's-back Tunnel. As we approach, 
the mountain is cleft by a deep narrow ravine, which is in 
reality a watercourse, down whose steeps rushes a torrent 
towards the river in the valley below. Over this the train 
passes, affording a grand spectacle when the water, in the 
south-west monsoon, dashes with resistless force amongst the 
boulders and broken crags of the chasm, above which the train 
seems momentarily suspended. The vision lasts but a few 
seconds, when the tunnel heightens the keen sense of wonder- 
ment with its contrast of absolute darkness. In a few moments 
more the scene seems to reappear as the mountain side is cleft 
again, and an exactly similar ravine is bridged, followed by 
the darkness of a second tunnel. After obtaining a view of 
the Galboda Cliff on the left we arrive at Galboda station. 

Qaiboda Galboda (94m. 38c). — At Galboda attention may be drawn 

-'^ l J'' ct to the picturesque station garden. It may here be mentioned 

that the railway strongly encourages the cultivation of station 
gardens, and substantial prizes arc annually awarded for the 



best results in the various districts. Upon leaving Galboda 
station we still ascend in ever-winding' course, and as we pass 
through Blackwater and Weweltalawa estates a grand open 
view is afforded extending over the low country right away to 
the famous Kelani Valley. Even Colombo, one hundred miles 
away, is said to be discernible from this point on a clear day. 

Watawala (100m. 13c). — Watawala station which serves 
a large group of tea estates is now passed, and the Dickoya 
district with its thirty thousand acres of tea bushes next 
appears, the railway running parallel to the road on the 
opposite side of the valley and the Mahaweliganga flowing 

Rozelle (103m. 63c.). — Rozelle is another of the small 
stations which exist for the convenience of the tea estates that 
surround them. 

This railway journey into the tea districts is worth making 
for its own sake ; but even the excitement of an occasional sus- 
pension 'twixt earth and sky over a steep ravine, the wonderful 
dissolving views of mountain, forest, and stream, and the rapid 
changes of climate, do not exhaust all the points of interest on 
this remarkable line. The European traveller will notice with 
curious interest the gangs of coolies — men, women, and chil- 
dren — some arriving from Southern India, each carrying the 
sum of his worldly goods, some departing to return to their 
coast or native land, others merely leaving one district for 
another, but all enjoying the freedom of unrestrained con- 
versation in their very limited vocabulary, the subject of wages 
and food providing the chief topics, and those of paramount 
concern. Other gangs are noticed engaged in their daily task 
of plucking or pruning the hardy little tea bushes on the various 
estates. Nor should we pass over the pretty feature of the 
numerous bungalows, each situated upon some charming knoll 
and surrounded by a veritable little paradise. 

Hatton (108m. 16c). — Hatton is the largest railway centre 
for the tea industry, serving not onlv the Dickoya district but 
also the tea estates of Maskeliya and Bogawantalawa, which lie 
farther to the south. It is of special interest to the tourist as 
the nearest point of the railway to Adam's Peak, a mountain 
of great historical interest, which has allured to its heights 
millions of the human race, the ascent of which should be 
accomplished by all travellers who are possessed of the neces- 
sary energy and physique for the task. There is a first-class 
hostelry at Hatton, the Adam's Peak Hotel, where the traveller 
can spend the night and make his arrangements for the expe- 
dition. Carriages can be obtained, and the manager of the 
hotel makes all arrangements for the visitor. Many tourists 
make their plans for arriving at the peak just before dawn, 
doing the steep part of the climb by torchlight or by moonlight 


Main Line 





Scenes on 



4,141 feet 

L ocal 

Adam's if the occasion happens to be favourable ; but those who wish 

Peak • ■ • 

to avoid travelling in the night can arrange to arrive at sunset, 
taking up camping equipment for the night and sleeping on the 
peak. The distance from Hatton as the crow flies is but twelve 
miles, but the roads and paths by which we must travel extend 
to twenty-two, fourteen of which we can drive and the remain- 
ing eight being accomplished on foot. Only the last three 
miles present anything of the nature of mountain climbing, and 
they are easy compared to the ascent by the south-western 
route from Ratnapura, which, owing to its supposed greater 
merit, is the one commonlv chosen by pilgrims. The tourist, 
however, usually proceeds from Hatton by the north-eastern 
route. The drive takes us first through lower Dickoya to 
Norwood bridge, which is reached at the sixth mile; we then 
cross and turn sharply to the right, passing into the valley of 
Maskeliya and reaching Laxapana at the fourteenth mile, where 
we leave our carriage at the Laxapana Hotel and prepare for 
the climb. 

Sacred There is no object more familiar to the inhabitants of Ceylon, 

character or cme t ] lat ma k C s a deeper impression upon the multitudes who 

'mountain visit her shores than the lofty cone which bears the name of 

our first parent ; and it may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that among- all the mountains in the world invested by 
tradition with superstitious veneration none has stirred the 
emotions of so many of our fellow-subjects as Adam's Peak. 
The origin of its sacred character, involved at once as it is in 
the legendary history of several ancient religions, has been the 
subject of considerable research and greater conjecture. 

There is no doubt that the legends take their rise in the 
mark on the summit resembling the impress of a gigantic 
human foot. This the Buddhists devoutly worship as the 
sacred footprint of Gautama, while the Hindoos equally claim 
it as that of Siva, and the Mahommedans, borrowing their 
history from the Jews, as that of Adam. Thus do the adherents 
of three great religions, to the number of 800,000,000 of our 
fellow-creatures, vie with one another in veneration of the 
lonely Peak. As in pilgrim bands they ascend the mighty cone 
their hearts are moved and they regard its rugged paths as 
steps unto heaven. From all parts of Asia thousands annually 
flock up the steep and rocky track, enduring privation and 
hardship for the good of their souls. Some of the very old 
people of both sexes are borne aloft upon the shoulders of their 
stalwart sons, others struggle upwards unaided, until, fainting 
by the way, they are considerately carried with all haste in 
their swooning condition to the summit and forced into an 
attitude of worship at the shrine to secure the full benefits of 
their pilgrimage before death should supervene ; others never 







■ ■■ 



'■ '■■: ■ 



■ ■ ■ i 



Adam's Peak reach the top at all, but perish from cold and fatigue ; and there 
have been many instances of pilgrims losing- their lives by 
being blown over precipices or falling from giddiness induced 
by a thoughtless retrospect when surmounting especially dan- 
gerous cliffs. 

The European traveller, although uninfluenced by any super- 
stition, is nevertheless affected by the awe-inspiring prospect 
that meets his gaze when he has reached the summit. There 
are man}' mountains of greater height from whose lofty peaks 
the eye can scan vast stretches of eternal snow, but none 
can unfold a scene where Nature asserts herself with such 
impressive effect as here. 

No other mountain," wrote Sir Emerson Tennent, " pre- 
sents the same unobstructed view over land and sea. Around it 
to the north and east the traveller looks down on the zone of 
lofty hills that encircle the Kandyan kingdom, whilst to the 
westward the eye is carried far over undulated plains, threaded 
by rivers like cords of silver, till in the purple distance the 
glitter of the sunbeams on the sea marks the line of the Indian 
Ocean. " 

Under peculiar atmospheric conditions that frequently 
present themselves the curious phenomenon known as the 
Shadow of Adam's Peak is observable at dawn from the summit 
of the mountain. The first faint beams reveal the fleecy shroud 
of mist covering the world below, and as the welling light 
grows clearer up rises the mighty shadow. Like a distant 
pyramid it stands for many seconds ; then nearer and nearer, 
ever increasing in size and distinctness as the rays of light 
broaden over the horizon, it advances towards us like a veil, 
through which the distant mountain forests and plains are dis- 
tinctly visible, till at length it seems to merge in its might} 
parent, and instantly vanish. 
Kotagaia Kotagala (mm. 25c). — Soon after leaving Hatton the 

4,065/irf railway line passes through the Poolbank tunnel, 614 yards 

long. About the middle of the tunnel the gradient begins to 
decline, until at Kotagala station we are seventy-six feet lower 
than Hatton. After passing Kotagala the loveliness of the 
scenery increases until it seems to reach its climax as the 
remarkable beautv of the St. Clair Falls unfolds itself just 
before we reach Talawakele. The falls appear on the left, and 
some vigilance is required to obtain a good view owing to the 
recent growth of trees. The passenger who alights at Tala- 
wakele should not fail to visit these falls, which can be reached 
by walking to the 19^2 mile post on the Nawalapitiya road. 
Two miles farther on the same winding road, one of the most 
beautiful landscapes in Cevlon is to be found, where, at an 
abrupt corner of the road, another cataract, the Devon Falls, 




bursts upon the sight. No photograph can do it justice ; the 
charm of the view is in the setting of the waterfall with its 
steep and rugged background of rock, and the estates at 
various elevations towering above it, while the more distant 
ridges one by one recede till the farthermost is lost in rolling 
vapours. There are here five miles of road that present some 
exquisite landscapes seldom seen by the visitor, who is usually 
pushing on with all speed to Nuwara Eliya. 

Talawakele (115m. 69c). — Talawakele is an important Taiawak<rfe 
station of Dimbula, the largest of all the tea districts. The 3.932/"' 
little town itself has a population of about 1,500, and includes 
amongst its local manufactures the various kinds of machinery 
used in the manufacture of tea and the preparation of rubber. 
Some idea of its business may be gauged from the fact that 
about twenty million pounds of tea are despatched annually 
from Talawakele station alone. Local accommodation for Dhnhuia 
travellers is good. The rest-house, five minutes' walk from 
the station, has three bedrooms and stabling for three horses, 
good food being procurable without previously ordering. The 
divisions of Lindula and Agrapatana are served by mail coaches 
in which passengers can travel, and private carriages may be 
obtained at moderate rates of hire. The whole district is well 
served with means of communication ; the railway runs right 
through it, winding- about its mountain sides for twenty miles, 
and reaching the elevation of five thousand feet ; while splendid 


Main Line roads penetrate its various divisions. One of these, Agra- 

Agraj>atana patana, is second to none for its perfect combination of all the 
characteristics of climate and soil that have been found suitable 
lor the production of the highest class of Ceylon tea. It has 
indeed a perfect tea-climate ; and the formation of the hills 
ensures immunity from damage by wind, which in many dis- 
tricts is a danger that has to be provided against by the growth 
of extensive belts of grevilleas and gums for shelter. I do not 
say that none are necessary in Agrapatana, but fewer than in 
more exposed country. The climate of Dimbula, especially in 
the Lindula and Agrapatana divisions, is as near perfection as 
need be desired. Its average shade temperature is about 
65 Fahr. , and it ma}' be said that the variation is from 55° 
to 70 . The rainfall is about one hundred inches for the year, 
and is fairly distributed. After giving warning by the gradual 
increase in the density of the vapours, it descends in true 
tropical fashion, but with long intervals of sunshine between 
the storms. 

To vis:t Agrapatana we leave the railway at Talawakele, 
where a good road passes through Lindula for about five miles, 
and thence for twelve miles through the Agra district. 
Tim Agra Through the Agra district flows the Agra Oya, the longest 

feeder of the Mahaweliganga (the Great Sandy River), whose 
acquaintance we made at Peradeniya. This tributary takes its 
rise at Kirigalpotta, a mountain reaching an altitude of 7,732 
feet, near the Horton Plains. As we wend our way round the 
hillsides it is always present, meandering close at hand in the 
valley beneath. In flood it is a roaring torrent, but after the 
rains have subsided it becomes a picturesque and shallow river, 
flowing amongst the thousands of massive boulders of granite 
that have during long ages of time become detached from the 
mountains and rolled into its bed. 

As we drive through this district we get frequent glimpses 
of this river and the tea estates which lie upon its banks. Here 
we see a factory on some spot where the presence of the stream 
is a valuable asset in providing power to supplement steam ; 
there we notice a bungalow upon some site chosen for its beau- 
tiful aspect ; and as we drive along the well-made metalled road 
we notice that every acre, with the exception of some patanas, 
or grass lands, from which the district derives its name, is well 
covered with tea plants, looking unmistakably healthy, and 
evidencing the perfect " tea-climate " to which we have made 
Tea For a short description of the tea industry we can choose no 

planting more suitable spot than this, or one more convenient to the 

traveller who desires to use this book for the purpose of glean- 
ing information about the various districts through which he 


is passing- by rail. We will first take in its order the daily 
round of the planter's life. To him the adage " Early to bed 
and early to rise " is something more than a copy-book head- 
line. He rises at early dawn, which in this country varies only 
some minutes throughout the year, and at 6 a.m. attends the 
muster of all the coolies employed on the estate. These com- 
prise men, women, and children of about eleven years and 
upwards, who assemble in gangs near the factory or other con- 
venient spot. Each gang is in charge of a cangany or task- The a 
master, who superintends the work of the labourers, chastises 
them for their shortcomings, and looks after their finances, 
not alwavs disinterestedly. The cangany plays an important 
part not only in the management of the labourers, but also in 
their supply, and we shall have more to say about him later. 
The conductor, too, is another official who puts in an appear- 
ance and holds an even more important position. He is the 
superintendent's right-hand man in the fields; he understands 
the art of cultivation and looks after the various gangs. The 
tea-maker who superintends the work inside the factory is also 
there ; for work in every department begins with the break of 
day. All appear as if by magic at the blast of a horn or the 
sound of a tom-tom. The superintendent arrives on the scene, 
counts them, and assigns them in gangs to various work; some 
to plucking, others to pruning, weeding-, and clearing surface 
drains. He then recounts them and enters the number assigned 
to each work, in order that he may be able to check them 
at the end of the day. Early tea, that simple term used in 
Ceylon to denote the Indian chota hazari or little breakfast, 
is the next item in the superintendent's programme, and he 
returns to his bungalow for this repast. The factory is next 
visited, and everything there being found satisfactory he pro- 
ceeds to the fields and inspects the work of the pluckers. Here 
he walks carefully along the lines of women and children who 
are plucking the young grown leaves. 

In our picture may be seen some pluckers at work. The Pluck-i. 
baskets, which they carry suspended by ropes from their heads 
and into which the}- cast the leaves over their shoulders, hold 
about fourteen pounds weight when full. At the end of each 
row of bushes is placed a large transport basket, into which the 
leaves are emptied from time to time as the baskets become 
full. Women are preferred to men for this work, and earn as 
much as twenty-five cents, or about fourpence a day. They are 
not always the wives of the male coolies of the estate ; many of 
them come over from fndia attracted by the high rate of wages 
above mentioned. They look very picturesque while standing 
intent upon their work among the bushes, with their fine glossv 
hair and dreamy black eyes, their ears, necks, arms, and ankles 
adorned with silver ornaments, and their gay cloths of manv 


Tea planting colours falling' in graceful folds. To such an extent does prac- 
tice quicken the action of eye, brain, and finger, that it is 
difficult for the uninitiated to believe how carefully chosen is 
each leaf or shoot that falls into the basket. Plucking is a 
most important part of the tea-planter's business, and re- 
quires careful teaching and constant supervision. Only the 
young and succulent leaves can be used in the manufacture, 
and the younger the leaf the finer the quality of the tea ; so 
that if a specially delicate quality is desired, only the bud and 
two extreme leaves of each shoot will be taken ; whereas if a 
large yield is wanted, as many as four leaves may be plucked 
from the top of the shoot downwards, but with the result of a 
proportionately poorer quality of the manufactured article. 
There are many other points in the art of tea plucking that 
require care and judgment, as, for instance, the eye or bud in 
the axil of the leaf plucked must be left uninjured on the 
branch ; and where special grades of tea are required the selec- 
tion of particular leaves is of the utmost importance. 
Weeding Although a tea estate has no hedgerows or such visible 

boundaries, it is nevertheless divided into fields for convenience 
of treatment, and each field is visited in turn by the super- 
intendent. Weeding- is very effectively and thoroughly carried 
out. It would astonish farmers in the Old Country to hear 
that in Ceylon the tea fields are weeded on contract at the 
rate of about one shilling and fourpence for each acre per 
month, and that upon this system they are kept almost entirely 
free from weeds and grass. Indeed, it may be said that the 
tea gardens of Ceylon are kept far cleaner than most of the 
flower gardens of England. 
,, ■ If left to Nature the tea plant will grow to the height of 

about twenty feet, with a circumference of about the same ; 
but the art of the planter keeps it down to about three feet 
by constant prunings. After a year or two of plucking the 
plant naturally loses the vitality requisite to send forth abund- 
ance of new shoots ; it then undergoes the merciless operation 
of dismemberment ; its branches are lopped off to such an 
extent that it looks utterly ruined. But, as though its vital 
parts had appreciated the rest, it bursts forth with renewed 
vigour, and in a very few weeks is ready for the ordeal of 
another year's constant plucking. It is the practice in some 
cases to prune somewhat lightly every year and in others to 
apply a heavier pruning biennially. 

But we are anticipating, and it will perhaps be better to 
explain the treatment of the plant in its earliest stages of 
growth. It is planted in the fields either as seed or in the 
form of young plants taken from a nursery. Each plant is 
allotted twelve square feet of surface soil, and thus we may 
sav that a full planted acre contains 3,630 plants. An 

140. PRUNING. 


important consideration in planting out the young seedlings 
which are raised in the nursery is the " lining " or placing them 
so that each may obtain the fullest exposure to the sun, in order 
that when they reach maturity the plucking surface, which 
wholly depends upon the sun's influence, may be as great as 
possible. Opinions differ as to the age at which plucking may 
begin, but it depends greatly upon the elevation of the estate 
above sea-level, the growth being naturally less rapid in the 
cooler regions of higher altitude. We may, however, say 
roughly that in the low country, from sea-level to two thou- 
sand feet, tea plants will mature for plucking in two years, 
and upon the higher lands in four years. But about a year 
before the plant thus comes into bearing for purposes of tea 
manufacture it is cut down to about nine inches or a foot 
from the ground ; and again the same operation is performed 
two inches higher than the first cutting a couple of months 
before plucking begins. The plant is now plucked regularly 
every eight or nine days for two years, when it is again cut 
down to a couple of inches above the last cut. It will be 
seen from the foregoing remarks that in the matter of pruning 
the vounger bushes are treated somewhat differently from the 
older ones, inasmuch as the young ones are allowed to retain 
a larger proportion of their recent growth. 

The amateur who tries his prentice hand with the pruning 
knife will be surprised at the hard labour of the task and the 
d'scomfort of the stooping attitude that must be adopted ; and 
when it is considered that a field of about fifty acres contains 
some two hundred thousand bushes the amount of toil in- 
volved will become apparent. Of course male coolies only are- 
employed at this work, and they become so remarkably dex- 
terous that what seems to the novice a task of great exertion 
becomes to them one of comparative ease. 

The branches which are lopped off in the process of pruning 
are for the most part left where they fall; but as many fall 
into and obstruct the surface drains it is necessary to put on 
coolies to clear these out. A space of about six feet on either 
side of the drain is kept entirely free, so that there may be 
no impediment to the flow of the surface water. It is, how- 
ever, considered advisable, in seasons of much blight, to burv 
or burn the prunings, and this method has recently been very 
extensively adopted. 

It is now about ten o'clock, and the baskets of the most 
dexterous pluckers should be nearly full. The superintendent 
therefore returns to them and notes against their names the 
weight of leaf plucked by each, after which the baskets are 
emptied and the leaf conveyed to the factory. This operation 
is repeated two or three times in the course of the day. At 
four o'clock the pluckers cease work and carry off their baskets 


Tea planting to the factor}', where the)' sort over the leaf upon mats spread 
on the ground, as shown in our picture, and cast out any very 
coarse leaf that may have been accidentally plucked. The 
number of pounds plucked by each cooly is again entered in 
the check roll against his or her name, and then the sum of 
each plucker's efforts passes before the eye of the super- 
intendent before the coolies are dismissed ; and woe betide 
him, or her, who has not a goodly weight accounted for. 
Laziness thus detected brings a fine of half pay and in many 
cases a taste of the cangany's stick. 

But we were describing the daily round of the superin- 
tendent, and at present we have not pursued it beyond the 
early morning visits to various kinds of field work. Some four 
hours spent in this occupation in the pure mountain air, upon 
the rockj' steeps that we have described, induce a fairly healthy 
appetite for food and drink, and the next consideration is 
therefore the inner man. The planter returns to his bungalow 
for breakfast at about eleven, and generally spends the after- 
noon in attention to correspondence. At four the sound of 
the tom-tom, horn, or whistle, according to the custom of 
the estate, summons the coolies from the fields to the muster 
ground, where the superintendent now marks them down in 
the check-roll for their day's pay. In case of bad or in- 
sufficient work the offender is marked down as " sick," which 
means no pay at all for that day ; or he gets what is termed 
"half a name," which means half pay. Now they depart to 

Cooly lines their dwellings, which are called "lines." A cooly line is 

usually a long building of one storey only, divided into a large 
number of compartments. Each compartment accommodates 
about four coolies, and it is obvious that they do not rejoice 
in the luxury of much space ; but their ideas of comfort are 
not ours, and they are better pleased to lie huddled together 
upon the mud floors of these tiny hovels than to occupy superior 
apartments. Their lot does no^ call for pity or sympathy, for 
in many respects they are a favoured class. 

The factory We have now dealt with a day's field-work : we have seen 

how the raw material is obtained ; but we have still to examine 
the various processes by which it is converted into the manu- 
factured article. For this purpose we visit the factory. Here 
the green leaf undergoes four distinct processes, known as 
withering, rolling, fermenting, and firing. We will take these 
in their order, and first as to withering : 

Withering Let us deal with the green leaf that has been plucked on 

Monday and brought to the factory as before described. It 
is received by the tea maker, who ascertains its net weight, 
which he enters in a book. It is then passed on to an upper 
storey, where it is spread thinly on shelves of jute hessian 
and left to wither. Our illustration of this process will give 


a better idea of the shelves and the method of spreading' the Tea planting 
leaves than many words of description. These shelves are some- 
times made of wire instead of jute, but jute hessian very loosely- 
woven, so that the air can pass freely through it, is mostly used 
for this purpose. Successful withering depends very much on 
good light, warm temperature and a dry atmosphere. The 
last named is often the most difficult to obtain, and upon wet, 
dull days it has to be produced by artificial means. In fan- 
weather the leaf will wither naturally in about eighteen or 
twenty hours, but as the weather and climates vary in different 
districts there can be no time rule to guide the tea maker. 
When it is explained that the object of withering the leaf is 
to allow the sap and other moisture to evaporate until the leal 
assumes a particular degree of softness and flaccidity, which 
renders it susceptible to a good twist by the roller in the next 
process, it will be realised how important a thing it is for 
the tea maker to judge of the exact moment when these con- 
ditions have been reached and the withering must terminate. 

The leaf, being withered to this exact degree, is swept Rolling 
together and conveyed to the lower floor by means of a shoot. 
Here it is put into a machine called a roller. The object of 
rolling is to squeeze out the tannin and any moisture left over 
after the withering and to give the leaf a good twist. It is 
difficult to describe a tea roller, or to illustrate its effective 
parts by a photograph of the complete machine in working ; 
our illustration should, however, assist us to understand it 
sufficiently with the following explanation : The lower part 
may be regarded as a table with cylindrical ribs attached to 
its surface and a trap door in the centre. Suspended above 
this table is a smaller surface opposed to it, and the two sur- 
faces are moved in contrary directions by a crank with an 
eccentric motion. The upper surface is open in the centre, and 
extending upwards from the opening is a funnel or box to 
receive the withered leaf, which being therein placed the two 
surfaces are set in motion by steam or other power, and the 
leaf is thus rolled and twisted between the two surfaces. The 
lid of the funnel or box is gradually screwed down as rolling- 
proceeds, and in this way the pressure upon the leaf is regu- 
lated. The appearance of the leaf or " roll," as it is technically 
termed, when taken out of the roller is a mess of mashy lumps. 

It is next put through a roll-breaker, which not only breaks 
up the balls or lumps into which the leaves have formed but 
sifts the small and fine leaf through a wire mesh on to a cloth 
placed below to receive it. The roll-breaker operates on the 
leaf by means of rapidly revolving shafts to which are attached 
iron forks that beat against the balls as they are cast into the 
funnel. It is by the use of rolling machinery that Cevlon tea 


roll breaker 


Tea planting i s kept pure and free from the dirt which finds its way into the 
teas of China, where the operation is performed by the hands 
of the bland but unwashed Ah Sin. 

Fermenting The leaf is next spread out in wooden frames, and having 

been covered by wet cloths is allowed to ferment until it attains 
a bright copper tint such as the infused leaves have in the 
tea-pot ; or at least should have, for the brighter they appear 
the better the tea. The rolling process, by breaking the cells 
of the leaf, induces fermentation, which is a very necessary 
stage of the manufacture, the character of the tea when made 
depending greatly on the degree to which fermentation is 
allowed to continue. When the commodity known as green 
tea is required, the fermentation is checked at once so that 
no change of colour may take place ; but to produce black tea 
the process must be carried on for a considerable time, the 
sufficiency of which is determined by the smell and appearance 
of the leaf — points that require considerable experience and 
care, since over-fermentation entirely spoils the quality.* 

Desiccating Eermentation being complete, the tea is now transferred 

to the apparatus known as the desiccator, where it undergoes 
the process known as firing. The fermented leaf is spread 
thinly upon wire trays, which are pushed one after the other 
into this machine, where a current of hot air from 210 to 
220 Fahr. is made to pass through them. The tea emerges 
from the desiccator perfectly dry and brittle, and of a black 
colour. It is now completely manufactured. The tea maker 
next weighs it and enters the amount of " made tea " against 
the leaf which he received on Monday, and it should be found 
to be lighter by 76 per cent. The actual ratio of green leaf 
to " made tea " works out at about 4,200 lbs. of green leaf to 
1,000 lbs. of manufactured tea. 

Monday's plucking which has now by Tuesday night been 
converted into tea, is placed in bins, with wire meshed lids, 
to cool, and on Wednesday morning it goes through the 
process of sifting, which sorts it up into the various grades 
known commercially as Broken Orange Pekoe, Orange Pekoe, 
Pekoe, Souchong, and Dust, all of which terms are of Chinese 
origin, and refer to some characteristic of the sort of tea they 

si/ting The sifter is a machine consisting of a series of sieves one 

above the other in the form of sloping trays with wire meshes. 
The top tray has a mesh large enough to admit all but the 
coarsest leaf; the mesh of the second one is somewhat smaller, 
and the third and fourth decrease in like manner. This 

* In the Kelani Valley and other districts of the low country where the 
climate is much hotter, very little fermenting is necessary. The leaves are 
spread out thinly for a short time and firing may then be proceeded with. 


Tea planting sequence of meshes, varying in their apertures, is designed 
to allow the tea to practically sift itself, inasmuch as each sieve 
arrests a particular grade, the smallest leaf falling through all 
the sieves. These sieves or trays are made to oscillate at a 
very high rate of speed, the power being supplied from the 
factorv engine. It will be seen from our illustration that the 
sifter automatically ejects the various grades by means of 
spouts from which it falls into chests. 

Golden Tips There is yet something more to be said about the tea as 

it comes from the sifter. The smallest " leaf " which finds its 
way to the bottom of the sifter is known as " tea dust." It 
makes good tea ; but the crime de la crcme of Ceylon tea is 
that which is arrested by the fourth sieve, known commercially 
as Broken Orange Pekoe. It is a fine and small tea, consist- 
ing to a great extent of voung tips which look like little chips 
of wood. These tips not only give the tea a good appear- 
ance, but they add greatlv to its strength and flavour when 
infused, as they are the essence of the leaf. Alone the)' would 
be far too strong for the tea-pot, but sometimes they have been 
separated from the other leaves and sold as pure golden tips. 
They may be separated by throwing the tea against a big sheet 
of jute-hessian, to which the tips adhere and the remainder 
falls to the ground. 

The Broken Orange Pekoe travels along the lowest tray 
till it reaches the end of the machine, where it falls into its 
box, from which it is removed, weighed again, and transferred 
to bins reserved for its special grade. The other grades, 
Orange Pekoe, Pekoe, and Souchong are all treated in like 
manner, each falling from the sifter into its special box. The 
tea maker enters into the factory book the weight of each grade- 
after sifting, and checks it by the aggregate weight entered 
before sifting. 

The different grades are day by day stored away in their 
separate bins, until there is enough to make what is tech- 
nically known as a " break," which means a sufficient quantity 
to place on the market — say 6,000 lbs. and upwards. 

Bulking The next operation is " bulking," a process simple enough, 

but of very real importance. The whole contents of the bins 
of one grade are thrown out and moved by scoops or shovels 
until they become so thoroughly mixed that one pound of tea 
is quite certain to be equal to another in flavour and appear- 
ance. This bulking is necessary to ensure a uniformity of 
qualitv throughout a grade of tea which has been plucked and 
made on different days. The term " factory bulked," when 
marked upon the chests in which the tea is packed for ship- 
ment, indicates that the above operations have taken place, 
and is a guarantee of uniform quality. It is imperative that 
the planter should give most careful attention to this matter, 


as buyers are entitled to reject any break that does not prove 
to be evenly bulked ; and, moreover, teas discovered to be 
unevenly bulked when they arrive in the London customs are 
liable to be rebulked at the expense of the grower before 

Packing- j s the next operation. Each chest is lined with 
lead, and weighed carefully with its little packet of hoop iron 
and nails necessary for finally securing the lid. The gross 
weight of each is noted, and filling then commences. This is 
generally done by machinery. The chest is placed on a plat- 
form which oscillates and revolves at about two thousand five 
hundred revolutions a minute ; the tea being poured in is thus 
shaken so that the utmost capacity of the chest is utilised. All 
this is done so accurately that the full chest contains its allotted 
net weight to an ounce. A sheet of lead is now placed on the 
top and soldered down, thus securing the contents from air 
or moisture. The lids now being nailed on and the hoop iron 
attached, the chests are reach' for the final operation of marking 
with the estate name, the grade, and the gross and net weight, 
after which they are ready for despatch to the tea market. 

That tea planting is an active and busy life will be gathered 
from the foregoing sketch of the daily round, and it may not 
be untrue to say that the planter as a rule works hard. Perhaps 
it is equally true that he plays harder. In this and many other 
districts life is by no means all work, nor does it mean, as it 
used to do in the early coffee days, banishment from the 
amenities of social life. Each district has its sporting, social, 
and athletic clubs, and cricket, football, and hockey grounds, 
while some have also their racecourse. 

We take train again at Talawakele, and after a mile or 
two a distant view' of the beautiful Devon Falls is noticed. An 
interesting feature of this part of the journey is the curious 
serpentine winding of the line. In one place to advance a 
single furlong it takes a curve of nearly a mile in length, 
tracing the outline of a huge soda-water bottle, and rising 
meanwhile ninety feet. The windings necessary to reach the 
Great Western mountains now become so compressed that to 
accomplish the distance of about one mile direct the train 
traverses six miles of railway in a fashion so circuitous that a 
straight line drawn from a certain point would cross the rails 
nine times. 

Watagoda (120m. 9c). — Watagoda station has no feature 
of special interest beyond its usefulness in receiving and 4.4°°/^ 
despatching the produce of the important districts which it 
serves; but as we reach it, having ascended to four hundred 
feet above Talawakele, the atmosphere becomes so crisp and 
refreshing that it is difficult to realise the latitude of our 



Main Line position within six degrees of the equator. The line now 

gradually ascends upon the steep sides of the Great Western 
range, and approaches Nanuoya, with sensational crossings 
upon girders laid from rock to rock over the clefts of the moun- 
tains, affording magnificent views of the Dimbula district and 
of Adam's Peak, twenty-five miles distant, and upwards of 
seven thousand feet above sea-level. The lovely purple glow 
that softly lights the distant ridges in the early morn lends an 
additional charm to the return journey begun at daybreak. 

Nanuoya Nanuova (128m. 6c). — Nanuoya is the junction for the 

"" ■ ' Nuwara Eliya and Udapussellawa line. The railway facilities 

are convenient, including waiting, dressing, and refreshment 

rooms. Passengers travelling from Bandarawela can order 

their meals by telegraph free of cost. 

We shall for the purpose of our description continue upon 
the main line to the terminus of Bandarawela, afterwards re- 
turning to the narrow gauge line which serves Nuwara Eliya. 

From Nanuoya the main line gradually ascends some 700 
more feet in the next nine miles, the scenery changing from 
cultivated tea estates to stretches of primeval forest inter- 
spersed with patanas or grass lands. The temperature be- 
comes cold and the vegetation, although never leafless, appears 
stunted as compared with the luxuriance of the lower valleys. 
On the opposing slopes of a magnificent gorge the Dambagas- 
talawa waterfalls dashing forth in the midst of dense forest 
will be noticed from the train, and afford a beautiful sight that 
should be watched for by the traveller. 

Ambaweia Ambawela (137m. 8c). — Ambawela station serves the New 

6,o64/ "' Gallway estates five miles distant ; but is far from any town 

or village. Vegetables of every kind that flourish in tem- 
perate climates do well here and are cultivated for the Colombo 
market and the requirements of the passenger steamships. 
Among the animals that inhabit the forests are the " elk," or, 
more correctly, the " sambhur " deer, the leopard, and the 

Pattipola Pattipola (139m. 6c). — Here the highest point of the main 

line is reached. This station interests us as being a con- 
venient point from which to start on a walking or riding ex- 
cursion to the Horton Plains (six miles). It is not the nearest 
station to the plains ; but from it the path is easier than from 
Ohiva, and it is the only one of the two accessible on horse- 
back. Moreover, there is a comfortable rest-house at Pattipola 
where wc can stay in case of missing- a train. Horton Plains 
will presently be described ; but first some reference must be 
made to the unique natural features of the spot we have now 
reached. At Pattipola there is but a wall of rock, the crest 
of a mountain, between us and a province totally different in 
physical aspect and in climate. The railway pierces the rock 

6,245 f"* 





at a spot about a mile beyond Pattipola Station, and as we Main Line 
emerge there is suddenly spread before us the grandest 
panorama in Ceylon, a vast mountain ledge of rolling downs, 
six hundred square miles in extent, forming an arena to the 
lofty blue mountains that surround it. It is the province of 
Uva. The transition is instantaneous, and the spectacle a startling 
startling, especially if, as often happens, we have been en- 
veloped in damp mists in our approach to the tunnel. The 
phenomenon is most striking in the south-west monsoon, when 
the prevailing weather on the west side of the dividing range 
is wet, misty and cold, while on the eastern side the whole 
plains are ablaze with sunshine, and the air is crisp and dry. 
It is even possible to stand on the crest of the mountain through 
which the tunnel passes and see the storms of the west being 
held back from the bracing air and sunshine of the east by 
the dividing ranges. The existence of these two distinct and 
separate climates is due to the action of the monsoons in con- 
nection with the peculiar formation of the mountain system. 
The astonishing effect is not limited to this neighbourhood, 
but extends to all the ranges which divide the province of Uva 
from the west. Thus it frequently happens that when Nuwara 
Eliya is wet, a clear sky and sunshine may be enjoyed by an 
hour's drive into Uva, and vice versd, for Uva is frequently 
under its rainy mantle during the north-east monsoon. Some 
beautiful effects are produced by this peculiar combination of 
phenomena in the graceful forms evolved from the mists as 
they roll onward and gather in dense masses above the crests 
of the mountain barriers that protect the sunny plains. 

Ohiya (143m. 33c). — Ohiya, which we illustrate in plate Ohiya 
145, is one of the most picturesque stations on this line; but 
its beauty is of a character reminiscent of Cornwall rather 
than the tropics, for here we see English flowers in great 
variety and abundance, and no sign of the flora which dis- 
tinguishes the lower elevations. About a thousand feet above 
Ohiya lie the Horton Plains, which may be reached in an hour 
and a half by a precipitous path through the forest. This 
extensive table-land, seven thousand feet above sea-level, was, 
until the introduction of the railway, so exempt from human 
interference that the elk, red deer, wild boar, and leopard 
dwelt there in great numbers, and the sportsman of Ceylon 
could always depend on a good bag. The old rest-house was 
the only building for fifteen miles, and it was chiefly used for 
hunting and shooting parties. 

The present rest-house is a comfortable building, and in 
the trout-fishing season is much frequented by fishermen, who 
come to seek the wily trout in the picturesque stream, which 
has been stocked and preserved by the Ceylon Fishing Club, 
and which winds for many miles through the valley. 




Main Line The famous abyss known as The World's End, within a 

The Worlds short walk of Horton Plains rest-house, also attracts a number 
of travellers, and merits a few lines of description. The 
southern portion of the great table-land ends so abruptly as to 
give the sensation of having literally arrived at the end of the 
world. The traveller comes upon this suddenly when emerging 
from the forest, and the effect is startling in the extreme. One 
may stand at the brink of the precipice and gaze straight 
down the sheer side of the mountain upon another world five 
thousand feet below. Here is an atmosphere bracing and cold ; 
there lie the steaming plains of the low country. So great 
is the distance of the plantations, rivers, bungalows, and 
forests, that only by the aid of a telescope can the nature of 
any particular object be determined. Few human eyes looked 
across that marvellous abyss until quite recent years ; but with 
the facilities now offered by the railway it is becoming a more 
frequented spot. Although the leopard may have deserted his 
old haunt and the herds of elephants betaken themselves to 
quieter regions undisturbed by the iron horse, the same weird 
forests, with their dense undergrowth of masses of nelu scrub, 
the same magnificent landscapes and the impressive scene at 
the World's End are there unaltered. The trees, which look 
so old and undisturbed with their rich long beards of variegated 
moss, appear to be dwarfed by the cold of their lofty and 
exposed situation. Wild flowers, orchids, and ferns always 
render the scene fairy-like in the sunshine, but it is when the 
nelu is in blossom that these highland forests transcend in 
beauty almost every other part of Cevlon. This lovely flower- 
ing shrub, of the Strobilanthes family, is the chief undergrowth 
in these forests, and the species number as many as twenty- 
seven, some of which grow only in the drier parts of the 
country, but about twenty of them favour those forests with 
a considerable rainfall. Some are delicate and small, others 
have thick cane stems and grow to a great height. The 
blossoms cluster round the joints of their stems, and display 
great variety of colour — blue, purple, red, white, and the parti- 
coloured crimson and white. The blossoming is so profuse 
that the plant takes some years to recover, and it is therefore 
seldom that these high jungles are seen in their fullest glory. 
The fragrance of the atmosphere is no less remarkable than 
the beautv of the scene. 

4,7 6 5/ 

Haputale Haputale (153m. 43c). — From Ohiya the railway gradually 

descends amidst a multitude of broken cliffs and rocky ravines 
and through a series of short tunnels until Haputale is reached. 
This place should be visited by the traveller, if only for the 
magnificent view to be obtained of the low country. On a 
clear day the lowlands are visible right away to the south coast. 


There is usually considerable haze over wooded and undulated 
lands in the far distance; but even this is beautiful, and lends 
a lovely blue tint to the whole scene. 

To the south of Haputale lies an important planting- district 
possessing- an almost perfect climate and lovely scenery. The 
visitor, who will find the accommodation at the rest-house 
sufficient for his needs, should explore the outlying districts of 
Koslande and Haldamulla. 

Diyatalawa (156m. 76c). — Diyatalawa is famous as the 
place where five thousand of the Boer prisoners-of-war were 
encamped for two years. A considerable number of the build- 
ings erected for their accommodation are still in use for military 
purposes, the camp being used as a sanatorium for regular 
troops and a training ground for the volunteers. 

Bandarawela (160m. 58c). — Bandarawela is the terminus 
of the main line. Upon arrival here the visitor is generally 
eager to admit that upon no other railway journey has he ex- 
perienced scenes so varied and interesting as those afforded by 
this journey from Colombo to Bandarawela. The railway now 
renders the choice of climate to which we have previously re- 
ferred available at all seasons. There is a good hotel at 
Bandarawela, and the enervated resident of the lowlands can 
at all times make sure of enjoying fine invigorating air in a few 
hours, choosing Uva when Nuwara Eliya is wet, and vice versa. 

The principal mountains which enclose the great stretch of 
rolling downs, which we have seen upon our journey down 
from Ohiya, surveying them from the left, are Hakgalla, 
Pidurutallagalla, the Udapussellawa and Kandapola ranges, 
and Namunakula. 

Many pleasant excursions are open to the visitor from 
Bandarawela, descriptions of which we have not space to 
include here. We must, however, make some reference to 
one of the most charming towns of Ceylon, that lies in a lovely 
valley at the foot of the noble Namunakula — Badulla, the 
capital of the province and the seat of the Government Agent. 
Between Bandarawela and Badulla there is a regular coach 
service, which makes the journey quite practicable for the 
visitor. The journey of seventeen miles will be found interest- 
ing mainly on account of the flourishing tea estates through 
which we pass and the rice fields which will fill the valley for the 
last four or five miles. Arriving at Badulla, in consequence of 
our having descended from an elevation of four thousand to 
about two thousand feet, the climate will be found much 
warmer. The lower elevation favours tropical verdure, and 
we see in Badulla the beautiful trees and palms that we miss in 
the arena of the patanas of Uva. Upon entering the town the 
traveller is impressed by the architectural features, the fine 
trees and the general well-kept air of the place. 


4,367 feet 


148. Th 




Passengers for Nuwara Eliya leave the main line trains at Nanuoya 
Nanuoya and proceed by the narrow-gauge line which passes swf"* 
through Nuwara Eliya to the district of Udapussellawa. The 
pass by which Nuwara Eliya is reached is one of the most 
exquisite things in Ceylon. In traversing its length the line 
makes a further ascent of one thousand feet in six miles. 
The curves and windings necessary to accomplish this are 
the most intricate on the whole railway, and frequently have 
a radius of only eighty feet. On the right side of a deep 
mountain gorge we ascend amongst the tea bushes of Edin- 
burgh estate, and at length emerge upon a road, which the 
line shares with the cart traffic for about a mile. In the depths 
of the defile flows the Nanuoya river, foaming amongst huge 
boulders of rock that have descended from the sides of the 
mountains, and bordered by tree ferns innumerable and brilliant 
trees of the primeval forest which entirely clothe the face of the 
heights. In this land of no seasons their stages of growth 
are denoted by the varying tints of scarlet, gold, crimson, 
sallow green, and, most striking of all, a rich claret colour, Udapussei- 
the chief glory of the keena tree. Here is no leafless winter, 
although we have reached an altitude where frost is not un- 
known. None of the plants are deciduous. In such a climate, 
however, with bright, warm and sunny days following on 
chilly nights, the lovely ferns which sometimes in the early 



lawa Line 

Nuwara Eli; 


morn look pitiable with their blackened fronds soon recover 
their wonted hues. In plate 149 we see one of the sharp 
curves of the railway to which we have referred, and in plate 
148 we see the road and railway together. At Blackpool the 
railway leaves the cart road and enters an enchanting glen 
embellished with pools and bordered by receding hills down 
whose slopes the waters of twin cataracts are dashing in head- 
long course. Blackpool is the site for the new station for the 
electric lighting of Nuwara Eliya, the falls of the Nanuoya 
stream being used to give the necessary power. We cross the 
waters where they reach the glen, and passing through a deep 
cutting come out upon the plain of Nuwara Eliya, which the 
railway crosses, reaching the station on the eastern side. 

Nuwara Eliya (6m. 45c.) is well equipped with hotels and 
boarding-houses. The Grand Hotel is in a central position 
on the west side of the plain overlooking the golf links and 
public gardens ; the New Keena Hotel, on the same side, is 
near the United Club, croquet and tennis grounds, and the 
race-course ; the Grand Central Hotel, near the golf links, 
and the St. Andrews Hotel, well situated at the north end 
of the plain, command a fine view of the whole station. 
Amongst boarding-houses, Carlton House will be found 
both cheap and comfortable, especially for families with 
children : it is a favourite resort for planters' families who 
want a change. In addition to the accommodation thus 
afforded, furnished bungalows for families making a prolonged 
visit are usually available. 

There is probably no other place in the world that possesses 
such a remarkable combination of attractions as Nuwara Eliya. 
This fact should be noted not only by the large army of wan- 
derers who annually flee from the rigours of winter in northern 
latitudes, but also by the enfeebled residents of the Indian 
plains, for whom this unique retreat with its health-giving 
properties should have an irresistible attraction. Nuwara 
Eliya has a special recommendation which gives it the palm 
over all other health resorts. Here we can enjoy the purest 
and most invigorating air, with a temperature best suited to 
the health of Europeans, and yet behold a luxuriant tropical 
country at our feet. We can experience the change from a 
glorious bright day to a cold Scotch mist, and yet, if we choose, 
we can leave the moist atmosphere and leaden sky at will, and 
by an hour's drive reach dry hills and sunny plains. 

Year by year Nuwara Eliya is becoming more popular as 
a winter resort for English people who wish to avoid the 
vagaries and trials of an English winter. The journey is 
simplicity itself, and only involves stepping into a steamer at 
London, Southampton, or Liverpool and stepping off again 
at Colombo. The cost is moderate, and there is a varied choice 





of first class shipping lines, such as the P. and O., Orient, Nuwara Eliya 

Bibby, North German Lloyd, Messageries Maritimes, Nippon 

Kaisha (Japanese), and others. Those who have wearied of 

the Riviera and Egypt, and who desire to seek "pastures new," 

will never regret the comfortable voyage to the East and the 

subsequent happy days spent in Ceylon and Nuwara Eliya, 

with its glorious climate and varied attractions. 

A clear idea of the situation of this favoured spot can best 
be gained by regarding the highlands of Ceylon as one huge 
upheaval, having an area of about 4,000 square miles, with an 
irregular surface of hills and peaks of varying height, deep 
ravines and grassy plains, dense forests and open valleys ; a 
dozen distinct climates, each with its special characteristics of 
animal and vegetable life, from the lofty palms and gorgeous 
flowering shrubs of the lower elevations to the hardwood trees 
and English flowers of the highest ; from the steaming" haunts 
of the bear and buffalo to the cool regions beloved of the elk 
and elephant. There are choice of climate and choice of scenery 
to suit an)' constitution and to gratify every taste ; the wildest 
rugged country and the fairest undulating plains; wild sport Attractions to 
for the daring, golf-links and trout-fishing for quieter spirits, 
and a new world withal for those who need a complete change 
from familiar scenes. 

From the base of this mighty upheaval rise abruptly the 
four extensive ledges which we observed from the sea, at 
different elevations, and a number of lofty mountains, some of 
which reach the height of 5,000 to 8,000 feet above sea-level. 
The highest, called Pidurutallagalla, reaches 8,280 feet, and at 
the foot of it lies the Nuwara Eliya plain, just 2,000 feet below. 
Its position is, roughly speaking, in the centre of the highlands 
and approximately at the highest elevation, o'ertopped by only 
one of the mountain ledges. What wonder, then, at its pure 
and unpolluted air and its marvellous effects on the weakened 
constitutions of denizens of the low country, who find in it a 
sanatorium for regaining the energies they have lost? 

To the newly-arrived visitor nothing is more astonishing 
than the mental and physical change that he himself experi- 
ences. The pale and languid victim of the sultry plains is 
surprised at the sudden return of his lost appetite and the 
delightful glow that pervades the system, marking the return 
of the warm tints of health. A few days effect a still greater 
change ; the muscles become firm, the limbs gain vigour, and, 
above all, the rising spirits rapidly dispel the clouds of de- 
pression and invest existence with new delight. All this is due 
to the wonderful influence of the pure mountain air. 

Nuwara Eliya is an elliptical mountain valley, the plateau Geographical 
being 6,240 feet above sea-level and about eight miles in cir- 
cumference. It is surrounded by steep mountain ridges rising 


lis situation 

Its salubrity 



Nuwara Eliya to a height varying from a few hundred to two thousand feet 
above the plain. There are four gaps — that on the north-east 
leading into the Kotmale valley, that on the south-east to the 
province of Uva, that on the west to the Dimbula valley, and 
that on the east to Kandapolla and Udapussellawa. The tops 
themselves are for the most part thickly wooded, and still con- 
stitute favourite haunts of the leopard and the elk. The plain 
is charmingly undulated, and forms an admirable playground 
for both residents and visitors. In this connection it boasts, 
like so many other places, one of the best golf-links out of 
Scotland, and possesses an excellent race-course. 

climate When we remember that Nuwara Eliya is only six degrees 

north of the equator, and no more than 6,240 feet above the 
sea, the mean temperature, which is only 57 Fahrenheit, 
appears extraordinarily low. There is no doubt that this is 
mainly due to the geographical position of the island. Its 
moderate dimensions expose it to the full influence of the 
uniform temperature of the surrounding seas, while it is subject 
to the direct rays of the sun only twelve hours out of the 
twenty-four. The intense evaporation by day and the rapid 
cooling by night are also two important factors in the climatic 
peculiarities of the island. The Governor of Ceylon has a 
charming residence here (Queen's Cottage), and he and his 
family frequently make use of it, especially in the hot weather 
from March to May. 

its season The Nuwara Eliya season extends from November to May, 

each month having a fair proportion of fine days, February being 
the finest. On the whole, perhaps, March is the pleasantest. 
June and July are the only months that should be altogether 
avoided on account of rain and wind. October is generally 
very wet. But let it not be supposed that the merits of Nuwara 
Eliya as a health resort disappear with the fine weather. It is 
true that during the second half of the year rainy days arc 
prevalent, but the occasional bright spells intervening bring 
the most glorious days of the year, and the worst that can be 
said is that during this period it resembles a rather wet summer 
in the Highlands of Scotland. Moderately warm days, with 
a Scotch mist, followed by cool evenings that allure to the 
cheerful fireside of a well-furnished and carpeted bungalow, 
with intermittent days of sunshine, and a change within easy 
distance to any temperate climate you may fancy, make up a 
state of things not to be contemned even by those who are in 
a position to humour their every whim. Nuwara Eliya, indeed, 
supplies not onlv the energy needed for vigorous exercise, but 
provides also, in addition to its sporting facilities, innumerable 
walks that are unequalled in their attractions. Amongst them, 
the path to the summit of Pidurutallagalla, 8,300 feet above the 
level of the sea, deserves especial mention. 


The ascent is easy and the reward great. From no other Nuwara Eiiya 
mountain top in the world can you literally see over a whole pidurutaila- 
island of such extent and beauty as from this. From shore i '" // " 
to shore lie outstretched in every direction forests and plains, 
mountain ranges interlaced in intricate confusion, masses of 
verdant patana lands, interspersed with glittering streams : 
while the stillness of the profound solitude is broken only by 
the sounds from mountain torrents in their wild rush over the 
huge boulders in the rock)- ravines. It is here, with the 
accumulated impressions of the whole journey from the coast 
to the highest point of the highlands fresh in his mind, that 
the traveller confers on Ceylon the title of "the show place of 
the universe." 

The journey to the top is about four miles, and a very good 
two hours' walk. The glorious exhilaration of the pure 
and bracing air encourages residents in Nuwara Eliya to 
make frequent excursions on this account alone. The prospect 
varies so much under different atmospheric conditions that 
every fresh trip is amply rewarded by the ever-changing scenes 
that meet the gaze, while the cloud studies surpass even those 
of Alpine countries. 

But grandest of all is that beautiful scene which heralds the 
approach of day. To stand upon the highest point of this 
sea-girt land, with the shadowed sky above and brooding dark- 
ness below, there to watch the rosy-fingered dawn cast her 
first rays upon the thousand peaks that begin to peep through 
the snowy mists which yet enshroud the low-lying valleys, is 
an experience well worth the surrender of a few hours of 
sleep and an occasional fright at midnight forest sounds which 
betoken the proximity of some denizen of the jungle. The 
first glimmer of light reveals snowy masses of mist as far as 
the eye can scan, right awav to the ocean east and west, with 
lighted peaks peering through the veil resembling laughing 
islands dotting a sea of foam. Then as the dawn breaks a 
golden tint gradually appears over the hills, and when the sun 
bursts over the horizon a rapid transformation takes place. 
The petrified surf of the mists now begins to move upwards, 
and reveals with vivid clearness the valleys all fresh from 
their repose. The dewy leaves of the forest trees and the 
trails of beautiful moss which cling to their branches glisten 
with tints of gold, the moistened rocks sparkle with diamonds, 
and all nature rejoices at the new-born day. 

As the sun rises higher the nearer slopes become more 
distinct, and the distant ranges are clearly visible right away 
to Adam's Peak. The intermediate range of the Great Western 
(7,264 feet), five miles west of Nuwara Eliya, and Talankanda 
range (6,137 feet), dividing the tea-growing districts of Dim- 
bula and Dickoya, are seen most clearly as the sun gains power. 



Nuwara Eliya Nuwara Eliya is lying at our feet. The whole plain glistens 

with hoar frost or sparkling dew ; the river, like a silver streak, 
winds its course to the Hakgalla gorge, and for a great dis- 
tance ranges of forest-clad mountains alternate with waving 
plains. The nearest range is that called One Tree Hill, 
then comes the Elk Plains range, the next is a mountain of 
the Agrapatana district, and the lofty range in the distance 
is that of Horton Plains. The tops of all these ranges are 
clothed with forests, while rolling patanas cover the ridges 

As we descend in the broadening day we notice the great 
contrast between the character of the Pidurutallagalla forest 
and that of the lowlands. Instead of waving palms we see 
weird trees with gnarled trunks and forked boughs, festooned 
with long beards of lichen and orange moss. Many of the 
trunks are clothed with rich green creepers and adorned with 
the fantastic blooms of native orchids, and parasites innumer- 
able bedeck the upper branches with strangest flowers, while 
the magnificent Rhododendron arboreum, with its great 
branches and brilliant blossoms, appears everywhere as a 
common forest tree. 

Although the European community is small, it cannot be 
said that life is in the least degree monotonous to those who 
are fond of country pursuits. In addition to the wild sport of 
the jungle, including hunting (on foot) of the so-called elk 
(really sambhur deer), at which the presence of visitors is 
welcomed by the courteous owners of local packs, there are 
many distractions, such as cricket, golf, polo, hockey, and 
lawn-tennis. The lake is full of carp, and trout have been 
successfully introduced into the neighbouring streams, licences 
to fish in which are granted for any period between the months 
of April or May and October on payment of the necessary 
Goij But of all the amusements in which Nuwara Eliya indulges 

we must award golf the first place, because it has the largest 
number of votaries. That this should be so nobody wonders 
who sees the links and realises what a perfect golfing climate 
Nuwara Eliya affords. The course consists of eighteen^ holes, 
and for perfect turf, excellent greens, and variety of hazards 
it would be difficult to find an equal. Visitors are welcomed 
by the Golf Club and can play on moderate terms, and in this 
perfect climate the game can be played at morning, noon, or 
eve — a blessing to the low country resident, whose exercise 
is usually restricted to the cooler hours of evening, when the 
sun's rays are less severe. 

The visitor, be he from the low country of Ceylon, from 
the plains of India, or from distant England, Australia, New 
Zealand, or the Far East, has nothing but praise for this 



perfectly maintained golf course. Ladies are allowed to play 
on these links except on Saturdays and Sundays. 

For the sterner sex, the Hill Club, with its perfect situation 
and comfortable accommodation (including a number of bed- 
rooms), will be found most excellent, and members of recog- 
nised clubs can obtain temporary membership. It ranks as 
the principal club of Ceylon, out of Colombo. 

The United Club for ladies and gentlemen is a most suc- 
cessful institution. It includes a library, reading-room, ball- 
room, concert hall, separate ladies' or "mixed" golf links, 
croquet and lawn tennis courts. Its quarters are situated in 
the midst of its courts and links and command exceedingly 
pretty views. There is an excellent cricket pitch in front of 
the club-house, and although this once supremely popular game 
has to some extent suffered eclipse through the introduction of 
golf and croquet, some first-rate cricket is often played here. 
The sunny yet cool climate seems to breed enthusiasm lor 
sports and amusements of all kinds. 

A shallow gap on the mountain heights forms the exit 
from Nuwara Eliya on the Uva side. This gap leads to a 
lovely gorge, which extends to the foot of the majestic Hak- 
galla, where the clouds descend in saturating mist during the 
wet season. This is the most interesting drive in the neigh- 
bourhood. For five miles the descent is steep. The pre- 
cipitous crags have been cut away for the construction of the 
road, which in its winding course affords grand views of deep 
wooded ravines, covered with tree ferns in wonderful variety, 
and teeming with waterfalls. 

Beneath the rock, which in its form and outline is one of 
the notable things in Ceylon, nestle the Hakgalla Gardens. 
While these gardens are no less than 5,400 feet above the sea, 
this mighty crag towers above them to the height of a further 
1,600 feet. Here is a spot famous for picnic breakfasts, usually 
discussed in an arbour with an unbroken view of the plains 
of Uva stretching far below. 

The gardens, beautiful in themselves, owe much to their 
situation, and are the seat of experiments in the acclimatisa- 
tion of plants from temperate lands outside the tropics and 
from the heights of other tropical countries. We are surprised 
at the number of trees and shrubs, and the variety of fruits 
and flowers that are rarely to be found in a tropical garden. 
In addition to acclimatisation, the all-important work of ex- 
tending and improving the various species of indigenous plants 
is carried on, in order that the natural resources of the country 
may be utilised to the best advantage. In this place of practical 
science agricultural theories arc translated into actual fact, and 
provide invaluable material for the enterprise and initiative of 
the colonist. 




Kandapola (12m. 33c). — Kandapola station, 6,316 feet Udapussei- 
above sea level, has the distinction of being situated at the 
highest elevation reached by the Ceylon Government Railway. Kandapola 
It marks the entrance into the planting district of Udapussel- t,3i6/iet 
lawa, which, although in the Central Province, is really part 
of the great mountain ledge popularly known as the Uva 
country, and is subject to the same conditions of climate as 
Haputale and Bandarawela which we have already described. 
So that in the wet season of Nuwara Eliya a drv and sunny 
climate is very near at hand, being easily accessible by a short 
railway journey. The line to Kandapola leaves Nuwara Eliya 
by the eastern gap, crosses the Barrack Plains, and winds up 
a steep incline, sharing the carriage road for the greater part 
of the distance. 

Brookside (16m. 45c). — Between Kandapola and Brook- Brookside 
side the line descends thirteen hundred feet in four miles. -t,9 s i/'<'' 
This station serves the estates around it, but has no special 
interest for the visitor. 

Ragalla (igm. 17c). — Ragalla is the terminus of this line. Ragalla 
Here there is a rest-house with the usual appointments, where $,*&/"* 
visitors can obtain food and lodging. 

Those who live upon the few tea estates that extend to the 
very edge of these highlands where the descent to the heated 
plains of the low country is abrupt and precipitous are fre- 
quently witnesses of atmospheric phenomena that are at once 
terrible and magnificent. The sun is shining upon the smiling 
gardens of tea at an elevation of five thousand feet from which 
the spectator sees the olive green patanas in soft and sym- 
metrical curves rolling away to the borders of the tender green 
paddy fields of the lower slopes. Away in the distance lies the 
Bintenne country with its undulated land of forest and jungle, 
the retreat of the elephant, leopard and bear, and stretching 
away in a blue haze to the sea coast. Deep violet shadows are 
playing upon the lower foothills in constantly changing forms 
as masses of cloud pass over them. Presently the vapours 
gather in dense masses enshrouding in semi-darkness one 
sequestered valley. Suddenly a streak of fire passes through 
the leaden sky, a faint rumbling reaches our ears, the darkened 
mass momentarily changes to a lurid glow only to appear more 
blackened by the flame. Then, as if a vast cistern were sud- 
denly perforated in a myriad places it simply " rains ramrods " 
for a quarter of an hour, the frequent flashes of vivid lightning 
affording the spectator a view of the deluge descending upon 
the little valley whose vegetation recovers from the bombard- 
ment almost as suddenly as it had been attacked, and thrives 
amazingly as the result; for although not very distant from 
the cool and bracing region from which it has been witnessed, 
that little dale is a veritable hothouse. 




From Polgahawela Junction to Kankesanturai 



The Xorthern Line which branches off from the main line at 
Polgahawela affords the traveller every facility for visit- 
ing- the chief of Ceylon's antiquities, its oldest ruined city 
Anuradhapura ; it also renders easily accessible the interesting 
peninsula of Jaffna, until quite recently so isolated from the 
capital that communication was possible only by sea or a most 
uncomfortable three or four days' journey by cart road. But 
the interest of the visitor centres in the supreme attraction of 
Anuradhapura, whose remains are, as we shall see later, 
amongst the greatest wonders of the world. 

The itinerary from Colombo to Polgahawela has already 
been described, and we shall now proceed to the first station 
of the northern branch. 

Potuhera (7m. 53c). — It will be sufficiently evident that 
we are here again in the midst of tea, cacao, arecas, coconuts, 
paddy, betel, kurrakan, tamarinds, plantains, limes and sweet 
potatoes. We see them all flourishing in the native gardens, 
and especially the plantains, tons of which are daily despatched 
to distant markets. The village is a verv small one ; but 
boasts of a large number of ancient wihdres due to the circum- 
stance that Kurunegala, onlv six miles distant, became the seat 
of government after the final overthrow of Polonnaruwa in the 
earlv part of the fourteenth centurv. 



Kurunegala (13m. 150.)- — Kurunegala is now the capital 
of the North Western Province, and the centre of an important 
agricultural district, which has during the last twenty years 
risen by leaps and bounds to a condition of great prosperity. 
Not only has the capitalist greatly extended the cultivation of 
coconuts where a few vears ago all was jungle inhabited only 
by the elephant; but the villager, stimulated bv example and 
the encouragement of a paternal government, has awakened 
to the prolific possibilities of his higher lands, and has added 
other products to his hitherto exclusive paddy cultivation. The 
result is not only a great increase of wealth ; but a decided 
improvement in health also; for Kurunegala was not many 
years ago dreaded for its own special type of malarial fever 
that almost alwavs attacked the new-comer and which greatly 
distressed the natives during the dry weather immediately 
following on the rains, when vegetation rotted in the swamps. 
Now that so much of the country has been cleared of its rank- 
vegetation for cultivation great improvement is manifest, and 
it is hoped that in course of time Kurunegala fever will be 
unknown. The town, which has a population of about 7,000, 
is beautifullv situated and possesses an ornamental lake of 
about one hundred acres. The fine residence of the Govern- 
ment Agent, still known as the Maligawa (palace), is on the 
site of the ancient roval palace. A few years ago its grounds 
were strewn with remains of the original building ; but the 
most interesting of them have now been deposited in the 
Colombo museum. 

The natural features of Kurunegala are extremely pii - 
turesque, and possess some characteristics that are peculiar. 
Behind the town there stretches for some miles a series of 
enormous rocks rising to upwards of eight hundred feet from 
the plain. Thev are eight in number, and six of them bear 
distinctive names of animals which their curious shapes have 
been supposed to represent. These are the Elephant, Tortoise, 
Beetle, Eel, Goat and Crocodile. There are also two others 
known as the Gonigala or Sack Rock, and the Yakdessagala 
or She-demon's Curse; the latter rising to 1,712 feet above sea 

These rocks doubtless influence in some degree the tempera- 
ture of the air at Kurunegala; but less than is generally 
supposed. The heat is very much the same as at Colombo, 
averaging 8o° Eahr. The most interesting of the rocks may 
be climbed, and the reward is commensurate with the effort 
demanded, the surrounding country exhibiting its tropical flora 
to better advantage than when seen from the greater heights. 
On the Tortoise Rock (Ibbagala), which is approached from 
the Kachcheri within the town, there is an interesting- temple 
situated beneath an overhanging ledge ; a portion of the rock 





does duty as the roof and is gorgeously painted with the 
Buddhist conventional portraits, flowers, and various other 
designs. The temple contains a large number of images of the 
Buddha and his disciples. In the precincts are a dagaba and a 
copy of the impression of Buddha's footprint upon Adam's 

The Elephant Rock (Etagala), which adjoins the Tortoise, 
is the favourite resort of visitors and residents alike. It affords 
delightful views of the town, the lake and the more distant 

Wellawa (19m. 18c). — At Wellawa the aspect of the 
country already begins to change, and products that we have 
not hitherto met with are noticed ; amongst them tobacco and 
hemp. The village of about 1,500 inhabitants is under a 
Ratemahatmaya who pays a monthly visit of inspection, while 
minor judicial causes are dealt with by a Gansabawa president 
at fortnightly sessions. The landscape is enriched by the 
Yakdessagala, to which we have referred, and Dolukanda 
peak. Fair sport in snipe, deer and hare may be obtained. 
The neat little railway station of two stories, with its flower 
garden extending along the platform, will be noticed. 

Ganewatte (26m. 39c). — As we approach Ganewatte the 
little paddy farms, which have been observed amongst the 
greater stretches of waste land covered with natural jungle, 
gradually become fewer, and it is evident that we are enter- 
ing- a sparsely populated region. There is a rest-house at 
Hiripitiya, about a mile from the station, which is useful to 
the sportsman. It is, however, necessary to order provisions 
in advance or take them. 

For about twelve miles from Ganewatte the country on 
either side of the railway appears to be waterless and uncul- 
tivated, until about four miles from Maho a large pond is 
passed. Here the signs of life are storks and water fowl. 
Paddy fields again appear, and cart roads are in evidence on 
both sides of the line suggesting a centre of some importance 
amongst the wilds. 

Maho (40m. 3c). — The railway here brings within easy 
reach of the antiquarian the remains of another royal city, 
Yapahuwa, which is situated about three miles from Maho 
station. Yapahuwa was the retreat of the reigning sovereign 
Bhuvaneka Bahu I. after the downfall of Polonnaruwa, and 
remained the capital for eleven years from 1303. The most 
interesting of the remains have been removed to the Colombo 
museum, and amongst them a stone window with forty-five 
circular perforations within which arc sculptured symbols and 
figures of dancers and animals, the whole being carved out 
of a single slab of granite. It shows the great artistic skill 
of the period and gives a clue to the lavish architectural 





Northern decoration employed in beautifying the city, notwithstanding the 

Llne troublous times. But Yapahuwa soon met with a fate even 

worse than Polonnaruwa ; for the Pandvan invaders not only 

overthrew it, but captured and carried off to India the national 

palladium, the tooth of Buddha. 

Travellers can obtain single or double bullock carts at 
Maho at very moderate rates of hire. The only accommodation 
in the neighbourhood is the rest-house at Balalla about three 
miles distant. It is necessary to take what food may be 
required or order it in advance. The climate being exceedingly 
hot a plentiful supply of aerated waters should also be taken 
as the water of the district is not to be trusted. 
Ambanpola Ambanpola (47m. 2ic). — As we approach Ambanpola the 

dense scrub gives place to more open country and the forest 
trees become finer. Upon reaching the river Miova over which 
we pass upon approaching Galgamuwa some excellent timber 
will be noticed, indicating increased fertility due to a more 
ample supplv of water. But upon proceeding further north we 
are soon again in stunted scrub which renders the journey 
monotonous as compared with our experiences on the railways 
further south. 

Galgamuwa Galgamuwa (53m. 40c). — The country around Galgamuwa 

abounds in artificial lakes or tanks constructed for purposes 
of irrigation, one of which will be noticed quite close to the 
station from which the water supply for our engine is 
obtained. By means of these tanks a considerable acreage of 
land is brought under cultivation ; the products are, however, 
quite different from those with which we are already familiar, 
the chief of them being gingelly, chillies, kurrakan, gram and 
cotton. There arc eighteen irrigation tanks in the neighbour- 
hood, around and about which birds are plentiful; snipe, golden 
plover and teal affording good sport. Large game too abounds 
in the forest, including leopard, deer, pig, elephant, and bear. 
There is a rest-house within a mile of the station where the 
traveller will find the usual accommodation. Provisions should 
be taken or ordered in advance. 

Taiawa Tai.awa (71m. 75c). — Talawa has no special interest for the 

visitor, and no accommodation beyond that afforded by the 
railway station. Its possibilities in the direction of cotton cul- 
ture are being put to the test by the government, who have 
established an experimental station not far from here. 

Anuradhapura AnuradhApura (81m. 2ic). — Anunidhapura is the capital 

of the North Central Province and the seat of a Government 
Agent ; but beyond this it is a place of supreme interest to 
the visitor and is consequently provided with considerable 
accommodation for the traveller. The hotel is fairly spacious 
and very comfortable, but it cannot be said that the accommo- 
dation is sufficient at all times, and it is very necessary for the 


Map showing the positions of the 
Principal Ruins. 

Pavilions witli Moonstones ^^. 
and sculptured flights of steps 


Northern intending- visitor to secure rooms before proceeding- on the 

Line journey to Anuradhapura. Professional guides and convey- 

ances may be obtained. 

The city is on a level plain, about three hundred feet above 
the sea, and possesses a warm but not uncomfortable climate, 
the mean temperature being 8o° Fahr. The rains extend from 
October to December. January is often a Aery pleasant month, 
but liable to showers. February is generally most pleasant, 
while March and April are rather warmer. Fine weather and 
wind characterise the months of July and August. But the 
weather seldom interferes with the visitor, as even in the wet 
season fine intervals are frequent and enjoyable. 

Before entering upon a description of the many wonders of 
Anuradhapura it should be stated that from July, 1910, the 
Government Railway Department are inaugurating a motor 
mail service from Anuradhapura to Trincomalee, sixty-five miles 
distant. For those who do not care to go to the expense 
of hiring a private motor car for the circular trip mentioned 
on pages 122-124, a tr 'P by the mail coach to Trincomalee is 
strongly urged. Thereby at a reasonable cost a delightful 
experience of one of the most charming real jungle roads (on 
which one may possibly light upon an unwary leopard or wild 
boar) in the island will be obtained, whilst in Trincomalee 
one of the most lovely of natural harbours in the world will 
be discovered. (See also description of Trincomalee on p. 124.) 
i'iu- story ,^ The account of Anuradhapura given in these pages is in- 

tended mainly to excite the interest of the traveller or to 
quicken that which has already been aroused before he pro- 
ceeds to make a personal acquaintance with the ruins. It is 
mainly extracted from the author's previous work upon the 
subject. * 

It is a great thing that the period of the erection of the 
buildings whose remains now stand before us falls within 
the domain of authentic history. Not a single building or 
sculptured stone has been found that docs not come within 
this period, and it is remarkable that in India no relic of 
ancient architecture has been discovered of a date anterior 
to that of the ruined cities of Ceylon, while the history of the 
latter is infinitely clearer and more reliable than that of the 
adjoining continent, a circumstance due to the careful pre- 
servation by the Sinhalese of the olas on which the events 
of verv earlv times were inscribed. 
lle Mihintale first claims our attention because here began the 

Buddhist influence, the efficient cause of all the constructive 
energy which the Sinhalese displayed in the erection of their 
vast cities and monuments. Eight miles to the east of the 

*" Ruined Cities of Ceylon," by Henry W. Cave, M.A., F.R.G.S., 
M.R.A.S. 4th Edition. Hutchinson & Co., London, 1907. 





Mihintale sacred part of the city of Anuradhapura the rocky mountain, 

now called Mihintale, rises abruptly from the plain to the 
height ol a thousand feet. Its slopes are now covered with 
dense forest from the base almost to the summit, with the 
exception of the space occupied bv a grand stairway of granite 
slabs which lead from the level plain to the highest peak. 
These steps, one thousand eight hundred and forty in number, 
render easy an ascent which must have been originally very 
toilsome. They are laid on the eastern side, which is the least 
steep, the southern face being almost precipitous. The last 
hundred and fifty steps are hewn in the solid rock, and at the 
top is visible the north-east side of the ruined Etwehera 

At first sight the landscape conveys only the impression 
of a natural hill with precipitous sides covered with 
vegetation, and were not curiosity aroused bv the flight of 
steps, the dagaba might easily escape notice. A closer 
examination, however, reveals the existence of the ruined 
edifice that crowns the summit of the mountain. Near it there 
are other dagabas of great size. One, called the Maha Seya 
(see Plate 159), is placed in a position whence grand views of 
the surrounding country are obtained. The summit of this can 
be reached by the adventurous climber, and the exertion, if not 
the danger, is well repaid bv the striking spectacle of the ruined 
shrines of Anuradhapura rising above a sea of foliage, and the 
glistening waters of the ancient artificial lakes relieving the 
immense stretches of forest. For twenty centuries this mass of 
brickwork defied the destructive tooth of time and the dis- 
integrating forces of vegetable growth ; but a tew years ago it 
showed signs of collapse on the west face, and underwent some 
repairs bv the Ceylon Government. Our illustration presents 
a near view from the south, showing the portion cleared of 
vegetation and repaired. Some idea of the proportion of this 
dagaba may be gathered by noticing that what appears to be 
grass upon the upper portion of the structure is in reality a 
mass of forest trees that have grown up from seeds dropped 
by birds. 

The whole mountain is literally covered with interesting 
remains sacred to the memory of Mahinda, the royal apostle 
of Buddha in Ceylon. In the solid granite of the steeper 
slopes were engraved the instructions for the priests, dealing 
with every detail of their life and every item of ceremonial 
inscription* These inscriptions, which are still legible, tell us that none 

who destroyed life in any way were permitted to live near the 
mountain ; special offices were allotted to various servants and 
workmen ; accounts were to be strictly kept and examined at 
an assembly of priests ; certain allowances of money to every 


person engaged in the temple service were made for the Mihintale 
purchase of flowers, so that none might appear without an 
offering ; cells arc assigned to the readers, expounders, and 
preachers; hours of rising, of meditation, and of ablution are 
prescribed ; careful attention to food and diet for the sick is 
enjoined ; there arc instructions to servants of every kind, 
warders, receivers of revenue, clerks, watchmen, physicians, 
surgeons, laundrymen, and others, the minuteness of detail 
giving an excellent idea of the completeness of arrangement 
for the orderly and beautiful keeping of the venerated locality. 

Amongst other interesting remains on the mountain is the jY "a'" Pahwa 
Xaga Pokuna or snake bathing pool. This is hewn out of the 
solid rock, and is one hundred and thirty feet in length and of 
extremely picturesque appearance. On the rock which over- 
hangs one side of the pool is an immense five-hooded cobra 
carved in high relief. Having regard to the role of protector 
assigned to the cobra in the ancient legend, this monster, with 
his hood spreading fully six feet across, doubtless possessed 
prophylactic virtues, which were assisted by the ceremonial 
ablutions for which this weird and mysterious looking bath 
was constructed. 

Amongst the best preserved relics is the Ambastala Dagaba 
which enshrines the ashes of Mahinda, who ended his days on 
the spot where his successful mission began. The shrine 
marks, it is said, the very piece of ground where the first 
meeting of the monarch Tissa and the royal missionary took 
place. It is built of stone instead of the usual brick, and is 
surrounded by fifty slender octagonal pillars with sculptured 

We have exhausted all the space that can here be devoted 
to Mihintale ; but the enthusiastic student of antiquities might 
spend weeks in exploring the very numerous remains upon this 
mountain, which at present has not been dealt with by the 
Archaeological Commission. The road from Anuradhapura is 
good, and the rest-house affords comfortable accommodation. 

At Anuradhapura we shall see the remains of many build- Anuradhapura 
ings which were erected by Tissa as a result of his conversion. 
These will be found in that part of the city which was at the 
time of Mahinda's visit the Mahamega, or king's pleasure 
garden. The tradition is that the report of Bimbisara, king 
of Magadha, having presented his own pleasure garden to 
Buddha and of its being accepted by him for the use of the 
priests had reached the cars of Tissa, and in imitation of this 
pious example he dedicated the Mahamega to sacred purposes. 
This garden of twenty square miles in extent was in the centre 
of the royal city. The gilt was important, as signifying the 
royal protection extended to the new religion, and like all 
matters of special interest it received much attention from the 



may be seen by the following extract 

of the 

Anuradhapura ancient chronicler, as 

from the Mahawansa : — 

" In the morning-, notice having- been previously given by 
beat of drums, the celebrated capital, the road to 'the them's 
(chief priest's) residence, and the residence itself on all sides, 
having- been decorated, the lord of chariots, decked in all the 
insignia of royalty, seated in his chariot, attended by his 
ministers and the women of the palace, and escorted by the 
martial array of his realm, repaired to the temple constructed 
by himself, accompanied by this great procession. 

"There, having approached the theras worthy of venera- 
tion and bowed down to them, proceeding together with the 
theras to the upper ferry of the river, he made his progress, 
ploughing the ground with a golden plough to mark the limits 
for the consecration. The superb state elephants, Mahapaduma 
and Kunjara, were harnessed to the golden plough. Beginning 
at the first Kuntamalaka, this monarch, sole ruler of the people^ 
accompanied by the theras, and attended by the four con- 
stituent hosts of his military array, himself held the half of 
the plough. 

" Surrounded by exquisitely painted vases, carried in pro- 




of the 

cession, and gorgeous flags; trays containing sandal dust; Anuradhapura 
mirrors with gold and silver handles; baskets borne down by 
the weight of flowers ; triumphal arches made of plantain 
trees, and females holding up umbrellas and other decora- 
tions; excited by the symphony of every kind of music; 
encompassed by the martial might of his empire ; overwhelmed 
by the shouts of gratitude and festivity which welcomed him 
from the four quarters of the earth; — this lord of the land 
made his progress, ploughing and exhibiting furrows, amidst 
enthusiastic acclamations, hundreds of waving handkerchiefs, 
and the exultations produced by the presentation of superb 

"The eminent saint, the Mahathera, distinctly fixed the 
points defining the boundary, as marked by the furrows made 
by the king's plough. Having fixed the position for the 
erection of thirty-two sacred edifices, as well as the Thuparama 
dagaba, and having, according to the forms already observed, 
defined the inner boundaries thereof, this sanctified person on 
that same day completed the definition of all the boundary 
lines. At the completion of the junction of the sacred 
boundary line the earth quaked." 


Anuradhapuri Having thus dedicated the royal precincts of the city to 

religious purposes, Tissa's next object was to hallow them by 
the presence of a relic of the Buddha himself. 

It is not within our present purpose to quote the legends 
that embellish the history contained in the ancient Sinhalese 
writings, and we must pass on to the shrine itself, built by 
Tissa about the year B.C. 307. 
The Thuparama We accept as authentic the statement that the Thuparama 

was the first of the large shrines built upon this sacred ground, 
and that it was erected by King Tissa to enshrine a true relic. 

This monument is in itself evidence of the remarkable skill 
of architect, builder, and sculptor in Ceylon at a period anterior 
to that of any existing monument on the mainland. The upper 
portion of the structure has been renovated by the devotees of 
modern times, but the carvings and other work of the lower 
portion remain untouched. All the Ceylon dagabas are of this 
bell shape, but their circumference varies from a few feet to 
over eleven hundred, some of them containing enough masonry 
to build a town for twenty-five thousand inhabitants. The 
Thuparama is small compared with many of them, the 
diameter of the bell being about forty feet and its height about 

The most attractive feature of the dagaba is the arrange- 
ment of ornamental pillars on the platform. A large number, 
as may be seen by a glance at our illustration (Plate i6ia), 
are still erect. They are all slender monoliths of elegant 
proportions. The carvings of the capitals are singularly beau- 
tiful ; they contain folial ornaments as well as grotesque figure- 
sculptures, and are fringed to a depth of more than a foot with 
tassels depending from the mouths of curious masks. These 
pillars are placed in four concentric circles, and decrease in 
height as the circles expand, the innermost being twenty-three 
feet and those of the outside circle fourteen feet high. 

There has been a great deal of speculation as to the possible 
structural use of these pillars. It is very likely that they served 
some purpose besides that of mere ornament, but what that 
was we are hardly likely now to discover, as no allusion is 
made to them in any of the ancient chronicles. 

Of the original one hundred and seventy-six pillars only 
thirty-one remain now standing entire with their capitals. 

The interesting ruins of the Dalacki Maligawa, or Palace of 
the Tooth, are within the original outer wall of the Thuparama 
enclosure. This palace was built for the reception of Buddha's 
tooth upon its arrival in Ceylon in a.d. 311. 

^Ye pass now to a relic which has perhaps attracted more 
attention than any other — the sacred bo tree. The royal con- 
vert, King Tissa, having succeeded in obtaining a branch of 

Tile Sacra! 
Ho Tree 

161a. birds eye view of the thuparama. 





the fig tree under which the Buddha had been wont to sit in Anuradhapura 
meditation, planted it at Anuradhapura, and it is now the 
venerable tree which we see still flourishing after more than 
twenty centuries. Its offspring have formed a grove which 
overshadows the ruins of the once beautiful court and the tiers 
of sculptured terraces which were built around it. All that is 
left of the magnificent entrance to the enclosure is seen in our 
picture (Plate 162) — a few bare monoliths and the two janitors 
still at their post. 

The history of the venerable tree recounts with great 
exactness the functions held in its honour, together with 
reliable information on matters connected with its careful 
preservation and the adoration bestowed upon it. That it 
escaped destruction by the enemies of Buddhism throughout 
many invasions is perhaps attributable to the fact that the 
same species is held in veneration by the Hindus who, while 
destroying its surrounding monuments, would have spared the 
tree itself. 

Another very ancient and interesting foundation attributed hurummiya 
to King Tissa is the Isurumuniya Temple. This curious build- 
ing, carved out of the natural rock, occupies a romantic 
position. Before and behind lie large lotus ponds on whose 
banks huge crocodiles may occasionally be seen. We may 
easily photograph them from a distance by means of a telescope 
lens, but they object to be taken at short range. We may 
approach them with a hand camera, but immediately it is pre- 
sented to them they dart into the water at lightning speed. 
These ponds are surrounded by woodland scenery which 
presents many an artistic feature ; but we must here be content 
with a near view of the temple itself. To the right of the 
entrance will be noticed a large pokuna or bath. This has 
been restored and is quite fit for its original purpose of cere- 
monial ablution, but the monks now resident have placed it at 
the disposal of the crocodiles, whom they encourage by pro- 
viding them with food. 

The modern entrance to the shrine, with its tiled roof, is in 
shocking contrast to the rock-building, and unfortunately this 
is the case with all the ancient rock-temples of the island. 

The terraces which lead to the shrine are interesting for 
their remarkable frescoes and sculptures in bas-relief. There 
are more than twenty of these in the walls, and all of them are 
exceedingly grotesque. 

In addition to the tablets, the natural rock was frescoed in 
high relief, and although many of the figures have become 
hardly discernible, owing to the action of the climate during so 
many centuries, others are still clearly defined. Above the 
corner of the bath are the heads of four elephants, and above 
them is a sitting figure holding a horse. Similarly there are 


Anuradhapura quaint carvings in many other parts. The doorway is mag- 
nificent, and for beautiful carving almost equals anything to 
be found in Ceylon. There is nothing of special interest about 
the shrine. It has a figure of Buddha carved out of the solid 
rock, but the rest of it has been decorated quite recently, and, 
like the entrance porch, seems out of harmony with the spirit 
of the place. 

There are many more remains of this period in Anuradha- 
pura, but we shall now pass on to the Brazen Palace, a building 
of somewhat later date — the end of the second century B.C. 

In the interval between Tissa's death and the building of 
the Brazen Palace by Dutthagamini, a large number of monas- 
teries were erected and the community of monks greatly in- 
creased. But even so early as this after the foundation of the 
sacred city trouble came in the form of invasion from Southern 
//,! ' VI India. For some years the Tamils held the upper hand, Elara, 

one of their princes, usurped the Sinhalese throne, and the 
Buddhist cause was in danger of complete annihilation, when 
the Sinhalese king Dutthagamini, stirred by religious enthu- 
siasm, made a desperate stand and recovered his throne. The 
story of the final combat is worthy of our notice as showing 
the character of the man who erected the most wonderful of 
the Anuradhapura monuments. 

It was in b.c 164 that Dutthagamini, having grown weary 
of the protracted struggles of his arm)' which for some years 
he had led with varying fortune against Elara, challenged that 
The duel prince to single combat. Having given orders that no other 

person should assail Elara, he mounted his favourite war 
elephant, Kandula, and advanced to meet his adversary. Elara 
hurled the first spear, which Dutthagamini successfully evaded 
and at once made his own elephant charge with his tusks the 
elephant of his opponent. After a desperate struggle Elara 
and his elephant fell together. 

Then followed an act of chivalry on the part of Dutthaga- 
mini so remarkable that it has been regarded with admiration 
for twenty centuries. He caused Elara to be cremated on the 
Death , y Mara s P ot where he fell, and there built a tomb. He further ordained 
that the tomb should receive honours, and that no one should 
pass it without some mark of reverence ; and even to this day 
these injunctions are to some extent respected, and the tomb is 
still marked by a huge mound. 

With the death of Elara the power of the invaders was 
broken, and the heroic Dutthagamini restored to the country 
those conditions of peace and prosperity under which Tissa 
had been enabled to inaugurate the religious foundations 
already referred to. To the further development of these he 
now applied himself. 


The community of monks had enormously increased with 
the popularity of the new religion, and Dutthagamini made t/w Brazen 
their welfare his chiefest care, erecting the Loha Pasada, J-ai,nc 
known as the Brazen Palace, for their accommodation. This 
remarkable building rested qn sixteen hundred monolithic 
columns of granite, which are all that now remain ; their 
original decoration has disappeared, and we see only that part 
of them which has defied both time and a whole series of heretic 
invaders. The basement or setting of this crowd of hoary 
relics is buried deep in earth that has been for centuries accumu- 
lating over the marble floors of the once resplendent halls, and 
all that is left to us are these pillars partially entombed, 
but still standing about twelve feet out of the ground (see 
Plate 165). 

The history of this wonderful edifice is fully dealt with in 
the native chronicles, whose accuracy as to the main features 
is attested in many ways, and not least by the "world of 
stone columns " that remain. 

The following description is taken from the Mahawansa, 
and was probably written about the fifth century a.d. from 
records preserved in the monasteries : — 

" This palace was one hundred cubits square and of the 
same height. In it there were nine stories, and in each of 
them one hundred apartments. All these apartments were 
highly finished with silver ; and the cornices thereof were em- 
bellished with gems. The flower-ornaments thereof were also 
set with gems, and the tinkling festoons were of gold. In this 
palace there were a thousand dormitories having windows 
with ornaments which were bright as eyes. " 

The palace did not long remain as originally constructed by 
Dutthagamini. In the reign of Sadhatissa, about B.C. 140, the 
number of stories was reduced to seven ; and again, about two 
centuries later, to five. Its history has been marked by many 
vicissitudes, generally involving the destruction of some of its 
upper stories. These attacks on the wonderful edifice were not 
always due to the iconoclastic zeal of Brahman invaders, but to 
a serious diyision in the ranks of the Buddhists themselves. 
About the year B.C. 90 a question arose as to the authority of 
certain doctrines which one party wished to be included in the 
canon. The proposal was regarded as an innovation and 
strenuously opposed by the orthodox fraternity, with the result 
that those who adhered to the innovation formed themselves 
into a rival body known as the Abhayagiriya. Hence the great 
Brazen Palace, which had originally been the residence of the 
highest ascetics, was dependent for its preservation on the 
varying fortunes of its orthodox inhabitants. This division, 
which marred the unity of Buddhism in Ceylon for fourteen 
centuries, was perhaps at the height of its bitterness when 


Anuradhapura Maha Sen came to the throne at the beginning of the third 
century. He adopted the heresy above referred to and pulled 
down the Brazen Palace in order to enrich the rival monastery 
with its treasures. This apostate king, however, afterwards 
recanted, and in his penitence he restored the palace once more 
to its ancient splendour, and rebuilt all the other monasteries 
that he had destroyed. 

From the nature of its construction as well as the intrinsic 
value of its decorative materials, the Brazen Palace has always 
been more exposed to spoliation than the shrines and other 
buildings whose colossal proportions astonish us as we wander 
through the sacred city. 

A more enduring and not less remarkable piece of the work 
of Dutthagamini has come down to us. The new religion had 
filled its votaries with almost superhuman energy, and only the 
verv hills themselves could compare with the buildings which 
were the outward expression of their devotion. Foundations 
were laid to the depth of one hundred feet and composed of 
layers of crystallised stone and plates of iron and copper alter- 
nately placed and cemented ; and upon such bases were piled 
millions of tons of masonry. 

t/ic Ruaimidi We see the remains of one of these stupendous edifices in 

the Ruanweli or Gold-dust Dagaba. Its present appearance 
from a distance, from which our picture is taken, is that of a 
conical shaped hill nearly two hundred feet high, covered with 
trees and surmounted by a tiny spire. It is, however, a mass 
of solid brickwork (see Plates 166 and 167). 

Time and the frequent attacks of enemies have to a great 
extent obliterated the original design, but there is sufficient of 
the structure still remaining to verify the accounts of the ancient 
writers who have transmitted to us full details of the building 
as it was erected in the second century B.C. We should not 
readily believe these accounts without the evidence of the ruins. 
It is as well, therefore, to see what remains before we glance 
at the first written story of the dagaba. 

The ruins of the eastern portico in the foreground of the 
picture at once suggest an entrance of stately proportions. 
The pillars are arranged in six parallel rows so that wooden 
beams might be laid upon them longitudinally and transversely 
for the support of the ornamental open roof which was un- 
doubtedly there. The boldly sculptured lions of the left front 
give a clue to the style of ornament adopted. 

Upon traversing the passage, which we notice is sufficiently 
large to admit elephants, we arrive at an extensive court or 
platform nearly one hundred feet wide and extending round 
the whole dagaba. This is the path used for processions in 
which a large number of elephants frequently took part. From 
this rises another immense square platform measuring about 






five hundred feet each way and made to appear as if supported Anuradhapura 

by about four hundred elephants. These elephants form the 

retaining- wall ; they were modelled in brickwork and placed 

less than two feet apart ; only their heads and fore legs appear ; 

their height is about nine feet. Although all that have been 

excavated are in a terribly dilapidated condition (see Plate 167), 

there are still evidences here and there of the original treatment 

and finish. We learn from the native records that they were 

all coated with the hard and durable white enamel, chunam, 

and that each had ivory tusks. In protected places portions of 

the original surface still remain, and the holes in the jaws 

where the tusks were inserted are still visible. 

There are also traces of ornamental trappings which were 
executed in bold relief ; they differ considerably on each 
elephant, suggesting great ingenuity on the part of the 

These two platforms form the foundation constructed to 
sustain the ponderous mass of the solid brick shrine which was 
built upon it to the height of two hundred and seventy feet, 
with an equal diameter at the base of the dome. 

The upper platform from which the dagaba rises covers 
an area of about five acres, and is paved with stone slabs ; these 
share the general ruin, due more to ruthless destruction than 
the ravages of time. We notice that repairs have been effected 
by fragments of stone taken from other fine buildings ; for 
there are doorsteps, altar slabs, carved stones, of all shapes 
and sizes, some incised with curious devices of evident 
antiquity, and even huge monoliths from the thresholds of 
other buildings have been dragged hither to supply the 
destroyed portions of the original paving. 

The objects of interest surrounding the dagaba are very 
numerous. There are four ornamental altars, and various 
parts belonging to them scattered everywhere : carved panels, 
pedestals, scrolls, capitals, friezes, stone tables, elephants' 
heads, great statues of Buddhas and kings. 

Our illustration (Plate 168) shows how formidable is the 
business of excavation. The platforms had been buried to the 
depth shown by the heaps of earth that still surround them 
and hide the greater portion of the elephant wall. The same 
features are observable in the illustration which faces this page. 
Here upon the platform we notice in its original position a 
miniature dagaba, of which there were probably many placed 
around the great shrine as votive offerings. This specimen 
with the platform below it is composed of a ponderous mono- 
lith, and does not appear to have been disturbed. 

In the far distance is a statue with a pillar of stone at the 
back of it. This is said to be a statue in dolomite of King; 


Anuradhapura Batiya Tissa I., who came to the throne B.C. ly. It is eight 
feet high, much weather-worn, and full of fractures. 

Near it are four other statues placed with their backs to 
statues the dagaba, three of them representing Buddhas, and the 

fourth King Dutthagamini. They originally stood in the 
recesses of a building on the platform, and were dug out 
during the excavations. They are all sculptured in dolomite ; 
the folds of the priestly robes with their sharp and shallow 
flutings are very beautifully executed. They were probably 
once embellished with jewels, the pupils of the eyes consisting 
of precious stones, and the whole figures being coloured in 
exact imitation of life. 

The figure on the extreme left is said to be that of the king, 
who is wonderfully preserved considering his great antiquity. 
The statue is ten feet high, and must have looked very im- 
posing in its original state, the jewelled collars being gilt, and 
their pearls and gems coloured and polished ; even now the 
leatures wear a pleasant expression. 

The hall where these figures were unearthed was probably 
built specially for their reception. It is close to their present 
position, and its threshold is marked by a plain moonstone. 
inscription oj Within a lew yards of the statues stands a very fine slab 

engraved in old Sinhalese characters. This seems to have 
formed part of the wall at the side of the porch of the hall, 
and it is still erect between two of the original pillars, being 
very firmly fixed in a bed of brickwork. The engraved face 
would thus have been inside the portico. Its date is the latter 
part of the twelfth century, and it gives some account of 
various good deeds of the King Kirti Nissanka, who was 
famous for his attention to the repair and maintenance of 
religious edifices. After reciting that he " decorated the city 
like a city of the gods," it ends with an appeal to future princes 
to protect and preserve the wihdres, the people, and the 

To give a complete description of the Ruanweli dagaba 
and of the numerous ruined halls, altars and monuments that 
form part of or are connected with it would fill a volume at least 
as large as the present. We must, however, remark briefly on 
a lew more points of special interest. 

The three terraces or pasadas round the base of the bell are 
about seven feet wide, and were used as ambulatories by the 
worshippers. The uppermost terrace is ornamented with fore- 
quarters of kneeling elephants to the number of about one 
hundred and fifty. These are placed on the outer edge at regu- 
lar intervals all round the dagaba. From the terraces the great 
hemispherical mass of brickwork was carried to the height of 
two hundred and seventy feet, including the tee or small spire. 


Its present appearance, as may be seen in plate 167, is a Anuradhapura 
shapeless mound covered with trees sprung from stray seeds ; 
but beneath those trees are the millions of bricks which were 
carefully and religiously laid two thousand years ago. 

The lower part of the bell has been restored to some extent 
by pious pilgrims who have from time to time expended con- 
siderable sums of money upon it ; but the race that could 
make these immense shrines what they once were has 
vanished, and with it the conditions which rendered such works 

The principal ornaments of the dagaba were the chapels or 
altars at the four cardinal points. All these are in a very 
ruinous condition, portions of the friezes carved in quaint 
designs being strewn about, as also are railings, mouldings, 
brackets, vases, and sculptures of various kinds. One of these 
structures, however, has been restored as far as possible from 
the fragments found lying about at the time of its excavation 
There are traces here and there of enamel and colour, 
especially upon the figure subjects, and it is supposed from 
this that the whole surface of the altars was covered with 
that wonderfully durable white chunam, and that they were 
made attractive to the native eye by the gaudy colouring of 
the figures and cornices. 

In addition to the interesting architectural features of the 
shrine there are numerous inscriptions in old Sinhalese charac- 
ters, relating to grants of land and other matters connected 
with the dagaba. 

Each of several succeeding kings added something to the 
decoration, and erected more buildings in the precincts of the 
great shrine. It is recorded of King Batiya Tissa, who reigned 
between 19 B.C. and 9 a.d. , and whose statue near the dagaba 
we have already noticed, that on one occasion he festooned the 
dagaba with jessamine from pedestal to pinnacle ; and on 
another he literally buried it in a heap of flowers, which he 
kept watered by means of machinery constructed for the pur- 
pose. Another king is said to have placed a diamond hoop 
upon the spire. 

Great wealth was lavished on the structure for many years 
after its erection. In later times, when the enemies of 
Buddhism obtained possession of the city, the great dagaba 
suffered severely ; on many occasions it was partially destroyed, 
and again restored when the power of the Sinhalese was 
temporarily in the ascendant. The last attempt to destroy it 
is said to have taken place in the thirteenth century. 

After our somewhat protracted examination of the Ruanweli, Tin 
we pass from its precincts into one of the open stretches of 
park-like land that have been reclaimed from forest and jungle. 
The gardens that were once an especially beautiful feature of 

the landscape 


Anuradhapura the ancient city were but a few years ago overgrown with trees, 
and dense thicket had veiled every vestige of brick and stone. 
Recent clearings have, however, disclosed numberless remains 
which form a unique feature in the landscape. Clusters of 
pillars with exquisitely carved capitals, as perfect as if they 
had recently left the hands of the sculptor, appear interspersed 
with the groups of trees that have been spared for picturesque 
effect. Here and there numbers of carved monoliths are lying 
prostrate, bearing evidence of wilful destruction. As we 
wander through one of these charming glades we are attracted 
especially by the group of pillars illustrated in plate 169. In 
almost every instance of such groups the ornamental wings on 
the landing at the top of the steps are exposed, although the 
steps and mouldings of the bases are buried in earth. In the 
illustration here given it will be noticed that these wing-stones, 
covered with makara and scroll, vie with the carved capitals in 
their excellent preservation ; the fabulous monster forming the 
upper portion and the lion on the side are still perfect in every 

It is probable that these buildings consisted of an entrance 
hall and a shrine, that they were, in fact, the image houses of 
the wih&res. 

/■„/■„„„., Another very interesting feature of the cleared spaces is 

the large number of stone-built baths or tanks, called 
pokunas. There are so many, and they vary so much in 
architectural treatment, that they must have added greatly to 
the beautiful aspect of the city. The specimen illustrated in 
our plate has been restored, and gives a good idea of the 
original appearance, although much of the ornamental portion 
is missing. It will be noticed that on one side there is a stone- 
paved terrace, within which is an inner bath. This inner bath 
was doubtless sheltered by a roof supported upon stone pillars, 
of which there are several fractured pieces and socket holes 
remaining. The inner bath leads into a chamber like the 
opposite one visible in the picture. The walls of these chambers 
are beautifully worked single stones, and the tops are covered 
by enormous slabs of a similar kind, measuring twelve by 
seven feet. 

TheK-uttam. The most interesting example yet discovered is the Kuttam- 

poknna pokuna or Twin-bath (see Plate 171). This consists of a couple 

of tanks placed end to end, measuring in all about two hundred 
and twenty by fifty feet. The left side of the picture serves to 
show the condition in which the baths were when discovered, 
but on the right we see that some considerable restoration has 
been effected. The materials are generally found quite com- 
plete, although dislodged and out of place. 

Our photograph was taken in January, before the end of 
the rainy season, and in consequence the tank appears too full 


170. A POKUNA. 




of water to admit of the structure being seen at any consider- Anuradhapura 
able depth, and some verbal description is therefore necessary. 

The sides are built in projecting tiers of large granite blocks 
so planned as to form terraces all round the tank at various 
depths, the maximum depth being about twenty feet. Hand- 
some flights of steps descend to the terraces, some of them 
having carved scrolls on the wings. The bold mouldings of 
the parapet give an exceedingly fine effect to the sides. There 
are signs of rich carvings in many parts of the structure, but 
every portion is too much defaced to trace the designs. 

There is something very weird about these remnants of 
ancient luxury hidden in the lonely forest. In the dry season 
of the year, when the ruined terraces of the Kuttam-pokuna can 
be seen to the depth of sixteen feet, this scene is one of the 
most impressive in Anuradhapura. 

We cannot help reflecting, too, that the famous baths of 
the Roman emperors were constructed contemporaneously with 
these, and that while those of Caracalla and Diocletian, being 
built of brick, have crumbled now beyond repair, the pic- 
turesque and elegant baths of Dutthagamini, with their 
beautiful terraces and stairways of granite, can with little 
trouble be restored to their pristine condition. 

It is impossible to arrive at the exact purpose of the various 
forms of baths found at Anuradhapura. Some were doubtless 
attached to the monasteries and used exclusively for ceremonial 
ablutions ; some were private baths of the royal family ; others 
were possibly for public use, and many served as receptacles of 
the drinking water of the inhabitants. All of them were fed 
from artificial lakes outside the city. 

We have already referred to the usurpation of the throne King 
of Ceylon by the Tamil invader, Elara, and to the combat with 
Dutthagamini, which resulted in the defeat and death of the Mhayagmya 
usurper. Strange as it may appear, the victor, who had merely 
regained his birthright, was constrained to make atonement 
for bloodshed as well as the natural thank-offering for his 
victory, and to this we owe the building of the great monastery 
of the Brazen Palace and the Ruanweli dagaba. We find a 
curious repetition of history in the occurrences that took place 
about thirty vears after his death, when the old encmv again 
got the upper hand. The king, Walagambahu, was deposed, 
and the usurper, Pulahatta, assumed the sovereignty. Fifteen 
more years of alien rule ensued, during which no less than 
four of the usurpers were murdered by their successor, until 
Walagambahu vanquished the fifth, Dathiya. He then pro- 
ceeded to raise a monastery and shrine that should eclipse in 
magnitude those constructed by Dutthagamini under similar 

and the 


. [bhayetgiriya 


Anuradhapura The buildings of the monastery have vanished, save only 

the boundary walls and the stumps of its pillars, which are 
found in large numbers; but the Abhayagiriya dagaba (Plate 
172), of its kind the greatest monument in the world, has defied 
all the forces of destruction, both of man and nature, and 
although abandoned for many centuries, during which it re- 
ceived its vesture of forest, there is still a very large proportion 
of the original building left. The native annals give as the 
measurement of the Abhayagiriya a height of four hundred and 
five feet, or fifty feet higher than St. Paul's Cathedral, with 
three hundred and sixty feet as the diameter of the dome. The 
height is now greatly reduced, but the base covers about eight 
acres, and sufficiently attests the enormous size of its super- 
structure. The lower part of the dome is buried under the 
debris of bricks which must have been hurled from above in 
infidel attempts at destruction. Beneath this mass the remains 
of the numerous edifices, altars, and statues, which surrounded 
the dagaba, are for the most part concealed, but excavations at 
various periods have disclosed some ruins of considerable in- 
terest, notably the altars at the four cardinal points, one of 

The altars which is visible in our illustration (Plate 172). These altars 

are very similar to those of the Ruanwcli dagaba, but much 
larger and more elaborate in detail, being about fifty feet in 
breadth. Many of the carvings are in remarkable preservation 
considering their vast age and the perils they have experienced. 

King Malta The next group of ruins to which we come belong to the 

third century, when Maha Sen, on the recantation of his heresy, 
built another enormous dagaba and a series of smaller religious 
edifices, of which there are some very interesting remains. 
This monarch ascended the throne a.d. 275, and died a.d. 302. 
His support of the schismatics who had seceded from the 
orthodox faith is attributable to a tutor under whose influence 
he came by the secret machinations of the party. The result 
of this was that upon coming to the throne he persecuted those 
monastic orders that turned a deaf ear to the new doctrines. 
Hundreds of their buildings were razed to the ground, including 
the famous Brazen Palace, and the materials were used for the 
erection of shrines and monasteries for the new sect. When, 
however, after the lapse of some years, the old faith still held 
its place in the affections of the people and his throne was 
endangered by general discontent, he returned to the faith of 
his fathers, restored all the buildings that he had destroyed, 
and reinstated the members of every foundation that he had 

jeimmnarama The inception of the Jetawanarama monastery and dagaba 

is attributed to the middle period of this monarch's reign in 
the following quotation from the Mahawansa : — 

" The king having had two brazen images or statues cast 


placed them in the hall of the great bo tree ; and in spite ol Anuradhapim'i 
remonstrance, in his infatuated partiality for the thera Tissa 
of the Abhayagiriya fraternity — a hypocrite, a dissembler, a 
companion of sinners, and a vulgar man — constructed the Jeta- 
wanarama vihara for him, within the consecrated bounds of 
the garden called Joti, belonging to the Mahavihara. " 

The Jetawanarama thus begun before the recantation of j, /„;,;, „«r„»ia 
the raja was not completed till the reign of his son Kitsiri 

In our photograph may be seen the remains of this great 
shrine across the glistening waters of the Basawak Kulam 
from a distance of about two miles (see Plate 173). The 
Basawak Kulam is one of the lakes constructed as tanks for the 
supply ol water to the city. Although we shall have occasion 
to refer to these tanks later, we may here notice that this one 
is said to be the oldest and dates from B.C. 437. The lofty 
dome, which sixteen centuries ago stood gleaming from its 
ivory-polished surface above the trees and spires which dotted 
the landscape, now stands a desolate mountain of ruined brick- 
work, over which the forest has crept in pity of its forlorn 
appearance. Its original height is open to question. It is 
said to have been three hundred and fifteen feet, but at present 
it is no more than two hundred and fifty. Like the other 
dagaba already described it was restored at various periods, 
and its original outline may have been altered. The spire 
which still crowns the dome was probably added when the 
dagaba was restored by King Parakrama Bahu in the eleventh 
century. Sir Emerson Tennent's pithy remarks upon this 
monument cannot be overlooked by any writer on Anuradha- 
pura, and must be reproduced here : — 

" The solid mass of masonry in this vast mound is pro- 
digious. Its diameter is three hundred and sixty feet, and its 
present height (including the pedestal and spire) two hundred 
and forty-nine feet ; so that the contents of the semi-circular 
dome of brickwork and the platform of stone seven hundred 
and twenty feet square and fifteen feet high exceed twenty 
millions of cubic feet. Even with the facilities which modern 
invention supplies for economising labour, the building of such 
a mass would at present occupy five hundred bricklayers from 
six to seven years, and would involve an expenditure of at least 
a million sterling. The materials are sufficient to raise eight 
thousand houses, each with twenty feet frontage, and these 
would form thirty streets half a mile in length. They would 
construct a town the size of Ipswich or Coventry ; they would 
line an ordinary railway tunnel twenty miles long, or form a 
wall one foot in thickness and ten feet in height, reaching from 
London to Edinburgh. Such are the dagabas of Anuradhapura, 
structures whose stupendous dimensions and the waste and 


Anuradhapura misapplication of labour lavished on them arc hardly outdone 
even in the instance of the Pyramids of Egypt." 

/rtatx'nnarama In close proximity to the great Jetawanarama dagaba are 

live buildings in one enclosure measuring two hundred feet 
square. In the centre stood the principal pavilion, the ruins of 
which are shown in plate 174. At the four corners of the 
enclosure were the subsidiary edifices, now only traceable by 
a few stone pillars that mark the site of each. Only so much 
of the central pavilion as is seen in this plate has been ex- 
cavated, but it suffices to show some exquisite carving and to 
give some idea of the importance of the building. The hand- 
some stylobate measures sixty-two by forty-two feet, and had 
a beautifully moulded base of finely-wrought granite. The 
superstructure has entirely disappeared. The flight of steps at 
the entrance needs very few words of description, as it can be 
seen in our illustration (Plate 174). The landing is a fine 
monolith thirteen feet long and eight wide. On either side of 
the landing is a grotesque figure. A coping skirts the landing 
on each side, and terminates in a rectangular block ornamented 
with a panel containing a seated lion beautifully carved in high 
relief. This is one of the best pieces of sculpture we shall meet 
with. The strength of the beast is well brought out, while the 
uplifted paw and the look of defiance are most suggestive. But 
as remarkable as the skill of the craftsman is its preservation, 
exposed and uninjured during so many centuries. The steps 
are ornamented by squatting figures of men who appear to be 
supporting the tread ; these, too, are well carved ; the hands 
are pressed upon the knees; the waist is girdled, and a jewelled 
band falls over the shoulders ; from the head waving curls are 
flowing ; their ears, arms, elbows, wrists and ankles are 
adorned with jewelled rings and bangles. The pilasters on 
cither side of each figure are carved in similar minute detail 
and represent bundles of leaves. 

The moonstone At the foot of the steps lies the best preserved moonstone 

yet discovered. The moonstone, it may be observed, is almost 
peculiar to Sinhalese architecture, and is a semicircular slab 
forming the doorstep to the principal entrance of a building. 
Its ornamentation varies considerably, as may be seen on com- 
paring plate 174 with plate 175. In our specimen (Plate 174) 
the innermost fillet contains a floral scroll of lilies ; next comes 
a row of the hansa, or sacred goose, each carrying in its beak 
a lotus-bud with two small leaves ; then comes a very handsome 
scroll of flowers and leaves ; after this is a procession of 
elephants, horses, lions and bulls; and, lastly, a border of rich 
foliage. All this carving is as sharp and well defined as if it 
were fresh from the sculptor's chisel, and this in spite of an 
interval of sixteen hundred years. 

Guard stones Guard stones and wing stones doubtless formed part of the 






decoration of these handsome steps, but they have entirely Anuradhapura 

disappeared. The dvarpal stones which lace one another on the 

landing- are not so well preserved as the steps, owing to their 

being exposed while the lower portion of the structure was 


The forest is everywhere teeming with ruins awaiting dis- 
covery and excavation. Sometimes the only sign of an impor- 
tant edifice is a single pillar or group of pillars standing above 
the ground, or perhaps a portion of some stairway which has 
not yet become entirely hidden by earth. A few years ago 
Mr. S. M. Burrows discovered the most perfect door-guardians 
and flight of steps yet unearthed by a very slight indication of 
the kind referred to. These form the subject of our illustra- 
tion, plate 175. I quote Mr. Burrows's own words in refer- 
ence to them from his Archaeological report : " The extreme tip 
of what appeared to be a ' dorapaluwa ' (door-guardian stone), 
and some fine pillars at a little distance from it, invited excava- 
tion. The result was highly satisfactorv. A vihara of the 
first class, measuring about eighty feet by sixty, was gradually 
unearthed, with perhaps the finest flight of stone steps in the 
ruins. The ' moonstone,' though very large, presents the lotus 
only, without the usual concentric circles of animal figures ; 
but one at least of the door-guardian stones, standing over five 
feet high, is unrivalled in excellence of preservation and delicacy 
of finish. Every detail, both of the central figure and its two 
attendants, stands out as clear and perfect as when it was first 
carved ; for the stone had fallen head downwards, and was 
buried under seven or eight feet of earth." 

We have already referred to Kitsiri Maiwan I., who finished 
the great Jetawanarama begun by his father, Maha Sen. In 
the ninth year of his reign, a.d. 311, the famous tooth-relic of 
Buddha was brought to Ceylon by a princess who in time of 
war is said to have fled to Ceylon for safety with the tooth con- 
cealed in the coils of her hair. The Dalada Maligawa, or 
Temple of the Tooth, was then built for its reception within 
the Thuparama enclosure. The ruins of this famous temple 
are well worthy of inspection. The building appears to have 
consisted of an entrance hall, an ante-chamber, and a relic- 
chamber. Our illustration shows the moulded jambs and lintel 
of the entrance to the ante-chamber still in situ. The prin- 
cipal chamber is interesting for its curiously carved pillars, 
the heads of which are worked into a design often supposed to 
represent the sacred tooth. At the principal entrance there is 
a handsome flight of stone steps, at the foot of which is a richlv 
sculptured moonstone and a dvarpal on either side. The origin 
of the Perahara festivals, still held annually at Kandy, dates 
from the erection of this temple from which the tooth was upon 
festival occasions borne through the streets of Anuradhapura on 

'/'/„■ Dalada 


Anuradhapura the back of a white elephant which was always kept at the 
temple for the purpose. During the invasions of the Malabars, 
when the temple was more than once destroyed, the sacred relic 
was on several occasions removed for safety and thus preserved, 
but at length, in the fourteenth century, it was seized and 
carried off to India. The Sinhalese king Parakrama Bahu III., 
however, by proceeding to India successfully negotiated its 
ransom and brought it back again. There is a story of its 
having been taken and destroyed by the Portuguese at a later 
date, and although Europeans consider the evidences of this 
final mishap as historical, the natives are satisfied that the 
original relic still exists in the temple at Kandy and regard it 
with the greatest veneration. 
Toitmiia The native annals give many particulars of the streets of 

the ancient city, but considering how deeply buried are the 
foundations of buildings traces of the streets are difficult to 
find. There is, however, one of considerable interest at Tolu- 
wila, a couple of miles east from the centre of the city. 
Here for seweral hundred yards the way is paved, and on 
either side there are remains of many buildings. At intervals 
where the road rises and falls there are flights of steps. In 
the vicinity there are a good many indications of wthdres and 
a small dagaba. It is very likely that this was within the 
sacred part of the ancient city. 

Eor a fuller description of the ruins of Anuradhapura the 
reader is referred to " The Ruined Cities of Ceylon," by H. W. 
Cave ; and guide books by John Still and S. M. Burrows. 

The facilities afforded by the Ceylon Government Railway 
will now enable thousands from every country to explore 
Anuradhapura, which has at length taken its rightful place 
amongst the most alluring monuments of the ancient world. 


Anuradhapura to Kankesanturai. 

Madawachchi Madawachchi (97m. 31c). — The railway here approaches 

and passes over the main road which leads to the Giant's Tank 
and Mannar. The station takes its name from the nearest 
village, which is situated at the junction of the Jaffna and 
Mannar roads three miles distant. At the time of writing 
(1910) a railway extension of imperial importance is being 
constructed from Madawachchi towards India, and comDletion 
is anticipated in 191 1 or 1912. Sixty-six miles in length, it runs 
westerly through the jungle past the Giant's Tank, and over 
a series of bridges to the island of Mannar, which it traverses 
to its extreme westerly point at Talaimannar. Our Indian 
neighbour, the South Indian Railwav, meanwhile is also 
approaching us, by constructing a viaduct and swirig bridge 


over the Paumben Channel, between the mainland and the 
Indian-owned island of Rameswaram (famous all over the 
East for its saered Hindu temple), across which a railway line 
already stretches to Dhanishkodi on its eastern end. By these 
important works India and Ceylon will be brought within some 
twenty miles of one another by rail, the intervening gap being 
for the present " bridged " by a comfortable ferry service in 
assured smooth water, as the boats will proceed " northabout 
or " southabout " of the " Adam's Bridge " (i.e. the series of 
shoals and islets between Rameswaram and Mannar Islands) 
according to the season, be it north-east or south-west mon- 
soon. It is possible that this intervening space of twenty 
miles may one day be crossed by embankments and bridges, 
as there are no insurmountable engineering difficulties in the 
way. The Ceylon Railway purposes running carriages 
of the most modern type on this service, including sleeping 
and refreshment saloons, and ere a couple of years have passed 
a much more comfortable route for travellers between India and 
Ceylon will have been provided than the present dreaded sea 
route between Tuticorin and Colombo. 

The Giant's Tank, which is thirty-five miles from 
Madawachchi, is one of the most stupendous of the ancient 
irrigation works in the island, having a retaining bund three 
hundred feet broad, which originally extended for fifteen miles. 
There is a rest-house at the tank, as also at the village of 


(Photograph by Oiven If. Hemiian, Esq.) 


Northern Vavuniya (iiim. 77c). — Upon nearing Vavuniya we arrive 

" lc in the Northern Province, the part of Ceylon which has for 

Vavuniya centuries been known as the Wanni, comprising' that portion 

of the island which lies between Jaffna in the north, Mannar on 
the west coast, and Trincomalee on the east ; altogether about 
2,000 square miles. The country is generally flat and covered 
with thick forest and jungle, save where masses of black rock 
rear their gaunt heads above the foliage. Nevertheless here 
and there a few hills lend a welcome relief to the monotony, as 
do here the Madukanda range, which forms a background of 
beauty to the Vavuniya tank. For nine months of the year, 
January to September, it is the driest part of the island, and 
cultivation depends on the numerous irrigation tanks. Only 
one perennial fresh water lake exists in the whole province, and 
this is said to be partly artificial. The rivers flow only during 
the rains from October to December; at other times they are 
mere beds of dry sand. 
Tkejtcoph The inhabitants are mostly Tamils, with a sprinkling of 

Sinhalese and Moormen. Their condition is very low in the 
social scale. The villages consist of a few enclosed plots or 
courtyards, each containing several rude huts built with mud 
walls of about four feet high and a single door, to enter which 
it is necessary to stoop very low. There are no windows, and 
amid the semi-darkness of the interior the family reclines upon 
the mud floor or at best upon mats, the whole dwelling being 
innocent of furniture. Food consisting of kurrakan (a kind of 
millet), or paddy, is kept in a receptacle constructed with sticks 
interlaced in basket fashion and coated with mud. 

The courtyard is furnished with other necessaries to exist- 
ence in the shape of earthenware pots and mortars for pounding 
grain, and ploughs, and is inhabited by poultry and the 
ubiquitous pariah dog. In the more prosperous villages the 
squalid dwelling is surrounded by a wealth of fruit trees, 
oranges, limes, and plantains. Magnificent tamarind trees of 
great age are also plentiful. The people exist in great poverty, 
and apparently without any ambition to better their lot, and 
such is their indolence that the offer of good wages will not 
stimulate them to the slightest exertion. A paternal govern- 
ment exacts from them a certain amount of communal labour 
in connection with the irrigation of their lands, but even this 
they frequently evade until compelled by prosecution under the 
ordinances that have been framed for the common good. This 
lack of energy, however, which is in striking contrast to 
the industry of their brethren in the Jaffna peninsula, calls 
for sympathy, since it is bred of the poverty-stricken con- 
ditions that have existed in these districts during the centuries 
that have passed since their ancestors devastated the once 
fair province and left it to decay. They are the miserable 


remnant of conquerors who knew not how to colonise, and Northern 
their indolence is due not so much to mere habit as to their Llne 
physical degeneration. 

The people of the Wanni were doubtless in a more flourish- 27«"'«m* 
ing condition before the invasion of the European, when they 
had their chieftains, the vassals of the Tamil rajahs, who held 
court at Jaffna. Their impoverishment probably began when 
the Portuguese took Jaffna and relentlessly exacted tribute from 
them by force of arms. The Dutch followed with further 
devastation in their train, but still failed in the task of subjuga- 
tion. In these continued struggles irrigation works were 
neglected, agriculture was abandoned, a general decay set in, 
and jungle crept over the land. As time went on the wild 
and dangerous denizens of the forest increased enormously at 
the expense of man, who retreated to any place that promised 
security, till at length, when the British took possession, the 
first efforts in the direction of amelioration took the form of 
the destruction of the elephants and leopards. 

But it must not be supposed that there is no prospect of 
improvement in the condition of the poor villager in this un- 
fruitful part of the country. His lot is a difficult problem to 
the Government, but is nevertheless its constant care. It is as 
necessary to provide means as to inculcate the lessons of self- 
help, and both arc being done. The Hon. Mr. J. P. Lewis, 
who was in charge of the Northern Province for a considerable 
time, says : " With all their faults the Yanni people are an 
easy people to deal with, and one cannot help liking them. 
They are hospitable and not disobliging. Some of their ideas 
are verv primitive. Government, as represented by the 
Assistant Agent, is all-powerful, and they go with their com- 
plaints to him on every conceivable subject." 

There is game of all kinds, large and small, throughout this Came 
province, but not so abundant as half a century ago. ft is, 
however, a somewhat difficult country for the sportsman. 
Elephants in small numbers inhabit all parts. Deer, pig, 
bears, and leopards are not easily bagged, owing to the 
widespread density of the forests and jungle. The natives 
shoot large game to a great extent at night from ambushes 
in the vicinity of water holes, an excellent means of ridding 
themselves of bears by whom they are liable to be attacked, 
and of leopards who destroy their cattle ; but unfortunately 
the slaughter is extended to other game, with the result 
that it is fast disappearing. The birds that are plentiful 
include pigeons, hawks, partridge, quail, egret, hornbill, teal, 
flamingos, and peafowl. Crocodiles arc large and very 
numerous in the tanks and lagoons, often wandering far from 
the water in search of food, and sometimes satisfying their 
hunger with human flesh. 



Northern Mankulam (140m. 2ic). — Mankulam is in the very centre 

of the Northern Province. It is the nearest point of the rail- 

Mankulam wa y to Mullaittivu, the seat of administration for the district, 
which is thirty miles to the cast. There is very good sport of 
all kinds to be obtained from Mankulam, and it is the most 
convenient spot for the sportsman, there being four rest-houses 
within seven miles and a regular bullock-coach service with 
Mullaittivu. The district is, however, very sparsely inhabited 
by man. The land is fertile and admirably adapted for the 
cultivation of tobacco. Mankulam station affords an instance 
of trade following the railway, cart-loads of dried fish being 
brought daily from Mullaittivu on the east coast and despatched 
by rail to feed the coolies of the tea estates in the mountain 

Paranthan Paranthan (163m. 6c). — This station is principally used for 

the despatch of timber. Satinwood, for which the district is 
famous, is the chief freight. There is no local accommodation, 
and the station is five miles from the village whose name 
it bears. 

Elephant Elephant Pass (168m. 71c). — There is a natural curiosity 

as to the origin of the name Elephant Pass, and the explana- 
tions given arc plausible enough. Jaffna is a peninsula joined 
to the mainland by a long causeway, which at one time was a 
shallow ford. By this ford herds of wild elephants were in the 
habit of visiting Jaffna during Julv and August, the ripening 
season of the palmyra fruit. Palmyra palms abound here, and 
the elephant is particularlv fond of the fruit, which grows in 
luxuriant clusters, each of which is a good cooly load. If a 
sufficiency of fruit had not fallen from the mature trees the 
elephants would pull down the younger plants for the sake of 
their tender leaves. This is the theory adopted by Tennent, 
but it is equally reasonable to attribute the name to the use 
made of this ford by the natives in bringing elephants from 
the mainland to the fort as tribute to the Portuguese and 
Dutch, who shipped them to Indian markets. 

There is no railway station at Elephant Pass, but the train 
stops for passengers. There is a quaint and picturesque old 
building at the edge of the lagoon, facing the sea on 
one side and the lagoon on the other, which was once a 
Dutch fort. Formerly it was a rest-house in the davs before 
the advent of the railway, but it is now closed to the public and 
converted to a " circuit bungalow " for the Government Agent 
of the Northern Province. By the courtesy of that officer it 
is at times lent for temporary occupation to those who desire 
a short residence in the vicinity and who are prepared to bring 
their own equipment, servants and provisions. Duck-shootino- 
and fishing can be indulged in to any extent, and the salubritv 
of the place is beyond question. 


Pallai (176m. 54c). — In approaching Pallai we become Northern 
aware that the whole character of the country and its in- 
habitants have suddenly changed. Orderly cultivation takes Pallai 
the place of jungle and forest, and a large, healthy and in- 
dustrious population succeeds to the indolent and degenerate 
peasantry who have aroused our pity during our journey 
through their poverty-stricken districts. Pallai has a popula- 
tion of five thousand, ten Roman Catholic churches, and one 
of the Church Missionary Society ; curiously the latter institu- 
tion has seven schools to three of the Roman Catholics. The 
coconut is again seen flourishing here, and the large extent of 
its cultivation is evidenced in the railway freight of copra, 
240 tons being despatched to Colombo alone during the month 
of my visit. Pottery is also amongst the manufactures. 

Kodikamam (185m. 77c). — This station serves the important Kodikamam 
town of Point Pedro, ten miles distant and the northernmost 
port in Ceylon. There is a daily coach service between the 
two places. 

Point Pedro is almost the extreme northern point of Ceylon. 
It cannot boast of a harbour, but the coral reef which guards the 
shore affords shelter and a safe anchorage. The little town is 
neat and trim. We notice at once that care is bestowed on 
the upkeep of roads, bungalows, and gardens, betokening' the 
presence of an industrious population. It derives its import- 
ance from the circumstance that the town of Jaffna, on the 
western side of the peninsula, can never be approached by 
ships within some miles, owing to the way in which the water 
shoals towards the coast, while in the south-west monsoon 
ships of eight or ten feet draft cannot come near enough to 
receive and discharge cargo at this port. At such a time Point 
Pedro and Kankesanturai, although open roadsteads, are in- 
valuable anchorages. 

Chavakachcheri (190m. 41c.).— As we approach this town Chavakach. 
the surprising neatness of garden culture attracts our attention. cherl 
The villages are numerous, and disclose a closely-packed popu- 
lation, and the roads everywhere are in perfect condition. 
Large groves of the palmyra palm take the place of the coco- 
nut which flourishes further south. Tons of eggs are amongst 
the articles of food constantly despatched to Colombo, the 
railway having opened up the distant markets to the industrious 
Tamils, with the effect of raising prices locally, but at the same 
time contributing considerably to the wealth of the poultry 
farmer. The Americans have chosen Jaffna as a field for 
missionary effort, and two of their churches are in this village, 
the population of which is 3,500. 

Navatkuli (195m. 71c). — Navatkuli possesses similar Navatkuii 
characteristics to those of the preceding station, from which 
it is but five miles distant. 

i ultivation 


Northern Jaffna (200m. 24c). — Jaffna, the capital of the Northern 

Province and the seat of its administration, is an extensive and 

Jaffna well ordered town of about 35,000 inhabitants. Its climate is 

warm, equable, and dry. The Dutch, who adopted the penin- 
sula as one of their chief settlements, regarded it as particularly 
healthy, an opinion which is endorsed by its present rulers. 
It is especially beneficial in the cure of lung diseases, and 
should, now that it has become accessible by rail, prove a useful 
sanatorium for those who need open-air treatment. At present 
it possesses too little accommodation for the visitor, there being 
only one hostelry — the rest-house — and that is in a warm situa- 
tion, but it is spacious and comfortable, and suffices for short 

Agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants. The 
palmyra palm is at once the most conspicuous and the most 
beautiful feature of the landscape. The traveller will especially 
admire those forests of this palm which have increased at 
such different periods that the crowns of broad fan-like leaves 
rise in tiers from the foreground, young ones of ten feet, 
receding in deep belts of thirty, fifty, and seventy feet 
high, backed by the mature forest reaching one hundred or 

Tobacco, although it does not supply the cultivator directly 
with all the necessaries of life as the palmyra does, is next in 
importance, and economically is the most valuable of all the 
products of Jaffna, there being upwards of ten thousand acres 
in cultivation, yielding about seven million pounds per annum. 
The quality is coarse, strong, and full flavoured. It is not 
such as to find favour with Europeans, but is thoroughly 
grateful to the taste of the natives of both Ceylon and India. 
Most of it is exported to the mainland. Attempts have 
frequently been made to grow leaf of more delicate aroma, and 
with some success, but it does not suit the local market, and 
therefore finds little favour with the Tamil grower, who has not 
the spirit of enterprise or the ambition necessary to successfully 
compete with the purveyors of the white man's cigar. The 
Jaffna weed is pre-eminently the natives' fancy, and is likely to 
retain its hold when the large expanse of uncultivated land of 
the Northern Province, through which we have passed on our 
way to Jaffna, has been reclaimed for growing tobacco for the 
Western markets. It is certain that the Jaffna Tamil must 
sooner or later extend his boundaries, for practically every inch 
of the peninsula is under cultivation, and the population is 
already too dense. With the new railway facilities he will 
infallibly spread southward, and as a born agriculturist he 
will obtain from the soil whatever of profit it will yield. 
Nevertheless the question of extending the tobacco fields is 
not a simple one, since the quantity of coarse and pungent 

178. TOBACCO. 




the Ma, 


tobacco grown for the local and Indian market already suffices, Northern 
and the fine and delicate qualities requited in the more distant 
markets demand patient and careful experiment. In this, J affna 
however, the Government will lend its scientific aid through 
the agency of the Department of Botany and Agriculture. 
Irrigation, in which the native cultivator cannot easily take 
the initiative, except in the hill country, has perhaps more 
than anything else restrained the Jaffnese. On the peninsula 
it is an easy matter, because an unlimited supply of water is 
obtainable from never-failing wells. 

The irrigation of the tobacco fields, as well as that of the {; 
extensive fruit and flower gardens which everywhere abound, 
is primitive and peculiar. Water is obtained exclusively from 
the wells, and it is raised after sunset by labourers in the 
following manner : — The well sweep, a horizontal lever in the 
form of a log of wood about fifteen feet long, is so attached to 
a high post that it will act like the see-saw beloved of village 
children in Europe ; a woven basket of palmyra leaves is at- 
tached to the end of the lever over the well. A couple of coolies 
then play see-saw by walking to and fro on the log, making the 
basket descend and return again full of water by this useful 
kind of sentry-go. Thousands of coolies draw water during 
the night, and others distribute it over the fields and gardens. 
Sometimes one cooly is sufficient for the lever. Another 
labourer, generally a woman, stands near and directs the 
basket in its ascent, and empties it into the necessary channel 
by which it is conducted to the plants. 

We are amazed no less at the orderly and neat cultivation 
than at its variety. Every kind of "curry-stuff" seems to 
grow in Jaffna, which also produces the best fruits of the island. 
A large export trade is done in them, which is paid for by the 
importation of rice. Dry grains are easily grown ; but rice, 
which requires much water, is unsuited to the soil and climate, 
and is therefore not much cultivated on the peninsula. 

The fields are fenced in by palings formed of the middle 
ribs of palmyra leaves, or by such plants as aloes and cactus, 
which effectually keep out intruders. In no other part of 
Ceylon will the visitor see such fine crops of brinjals, chillies, 
ginger, gourds, melons, yams, sweet potatoes, and arrowroot. 

There is no town in Ceylon which still bears on its features 
the impress of the Dutch occupation so completely as does 
Jaffna. This is doubtless owing to the architecture of its most 
prominent buildings — the Fort and the bungalows. The Fort 
is built of coral, and shows no sign of decay at the present dav. 
Some idea of the masonry can be gathered from our little 
picture (Plate 181). Within its enclosure are several fine 
buildings : a massive church in the form of a Greek cross, the 
Queen's House, occupied by the Governor of the colony upon 

TIw old 
Dutch church 


Northern official visits, Government offices and police quarters. There 

are now very few Dutch Presbyterians resident in Jaffna, and 
in consequence the church has become disused and its furni- 
ture removed. The size of the church and the large number 
of tombs of Dutch officials testify to the importance of Jaffna 
in the Dutch period. Other remains of Dutch architecture in 
Jaffna worthy of the visitor's attention are the buildings in 
Main Street, where the gables and verandahs will especially 
claim notice. In this street is a house, now owned and 
occupied by a Tamil member of the bar, which contains 
some elaborately carved doors of massive character with 
finely engraved brass plates and hinges, bearing witness, in 
the sumptuous appointments of the Dutch houses, to the con- 
trast between the earlier colonisation and that of the present 
day, when the modern houses contain scarcely any suggestion 
of the home country, and are obviously regarded by their 
occupants as a temporary residence and not as a permanent 
home, a difference perhaps attributable to the steamship, which 
has brought the East and West, in time, so near together. 

There are also many remains of the earlier Portuguese 
occupation worthy the attention of the visitor, notably the fine 
ruined church and monastery on the Kavts road near the 
eighth milestone from Jaffna. The drive is a most pleasant 
one, and as comfortable carriages can be readily hired at 
Jaffna it should not be missed. Another Portuguese ruin of 
an equally interesting character will be found at Achchaveli, 
eleven miles from Jaffna on the Point Pedro road. This 
is an excellent drive to take for the inspection of the tobacco 

The visitor can make himself very comfortable at Jaffna, 
especially from December to February, when the temperature 
is moderate. The rest-house is not all that could be desired in 
such a large town, but it faces an open park-like space with 
fine avenues. The town generally gives a favourable im- 
pression. Its bungalows are spacious, well-built, and clean ; 
its streets are wide and well-tended, while its gardens and 
commons are so well kept as to suggest that there are no idle 
folk amongst the inhabitants. In fact, everyone is very busy 
at Jaffna, and we find that about as much work is done 
thoroughly there for one rupee as is half done in Colombo for 
double the amount. 

We have referred to the race that inhabits Jaffna as one of 
agriculturists ; but we also find industrious artisans working in 
the carpentry, jewellery, and other trades. The goldsmiths 
arc ingenious, and have formed very distinct styles and patterns 
that arc peculiar to them. Their bangles, brooches, chains, 
and rings are beautiful in design and workmanship, while their 
tools are of the most primitive order and few in number. 






Kankesan = 

Chunakam (206m. 14c). — Chunakam is the half-way station 
between the town of Jaffna and the terminus of the railway on 
the northern shore. There is no accommodation for the visitor, 
who will merely pass through on his trip to Kankesanturai. 
Between Jaffna and this place may be seen in its greatest 
variety and profusion every species of agriculture with which 
the Tamil has enriched the peninsula. 

Kankesanturai (211m. 18c). — Kankesanturai is the 
northern terminus. Here the visitor will find comfortable 
quarters and an invigorating sea breeze at the rest-house. 
The chief features of the quiet little port to-day are the light- 
house and the remains of the old fort that has been lashed 
by the surf for four centuries. 

As we dwell upon the striking scenes that the little peninsula 
has afforded us, and contrast them in our minds with the wild 
and uncultivated lands which we have seen further south, we 
cannot resist the conclusion that the possession of economic 
qualities is, after all, to be preferred to scenery. 




Where in olden times the Kandyan kings were wont to Keiani Valley 
descend from their mountain fastnesses and give battle to the Theohhn 
European invader a narrow-gauge railway now creeps along 
a romantic and beautiful valley. In those days travelling 
facilities were limited to jungle paths and dug-out ferry boats ; 
cultivation was sparse but nature was bountiful, and among 
her many gifts was the wild cinnamon which aroused the 
greed and avarice of the foreigner. For this he fought, and 
it was here in the valley of the Keiani that the greatest 
struggles with the Kandyans took place. The country between 
Colombo and Yatiyantota is full of historical associations, and 
many legends lend their quota of interest to the rugged land- 
scape. But the charms of romance have now yielded to the 
demand of commerce. Where a few years ago the life and 
occupations of the people were absolutely primitive and tillage 
was limited to native methods, there are now thirty thousand 
acres of tea, ten thousand of rubber and a railway. 

In spite of this great extension of the area of cultivation Attractions 
and of means of transport, the attractions of scenery and the °f sc ">*>y 
quaintness of native customs are very little diminished, and 
the tourist or visitor will not have seen all the best part of 
Ceylon until he has made the acquaintance of this famous 
district. Even the soldiers who were engaged in fierce warfare 
with the Kandyans, and who experienced all the trials and 
hindrances of marching in a tropical country without roads, 
were enchanted by the singular beauty of the country and 
described it in their journals in terms of glowing enthusiasm. 

The same fascinating landscape of undulating lowlands and The natives 
lovely river views is there, but the modern traveller finds not 
only excellent roads, but always a courteous, gentle and con- 
tented population. In no other district of Ceylon is Sinhalese 
rural life more full of interest. The primitive methods of the 
natives in the manufacture of quaint pottery, their curious 
system of agriculture and the peculiar phases of their social 
life, are not less interesting than the beautiful country in which 
they live. 



Kelani Valley The railway runs parallel to the river but at a distance of 

some miles to the south until Karawanella is reached ; there- 
fore he who wishes to see the river and the villages of Kadu- 
wella and Hanwella must make a special excursion from 
Colombo by horse carriage or motor car ; or he can take the 
train to Waga and drive to Hanwella. 

Kaduweiia Kaduwella is charmingly situated, and, like almost every 

village of importance in the Kelani Valley, has a delightful 
rest-house, which is built on a steep red rock almost over- 
hanging the river, and commanding one of many delightful 
vistas where the noble Kelani meanders in and out, and dis- 
plays its curving banks, always covered with the richest foliage. 
Here one may sit and watch the quaint barges and rafts as 
they pass, laden with produce for Colombo, or groups of 
natives and cattle crossing all day long by the ferry close by. 

Cave-Temple There is a famous Cave-Temple of the Buddhists at 

Kaduwella, very picturesquely situated under an enormous 
granite rock in the midst of magnificent trees. It has a fine 
pillared hall, the bare rock forming the wall at the back. The 
usual colossal image of Buddha is carved in the solid granite, 
and is a good specimen of its class. 

Behind the temple a magnificent view is to be obtained 
from the top of the cliff over the hilly country. The jungle 
is thickly inhabited by troops of black monkeys, flocks of green 
parrots, huge lizards resembling young crocodiles, and myriads 
of smaller creatures. Indeed, the zoologist, the botanist, and 
the artist need go no further for weeks. 

Maiwana On the right bank of the river, opposite Kaduwella, is a 

place of classical interest now known as Welgama, but 
anciently by the more poetic name of Malwana. Three cen- 
turies or more ago it was the chosen sanitarium of Portuguese 
Governors and high officials, and was regarded as the most 
salubrious spot within their reach. Here they dwelt in princely 
palaces few traces of which remain. 

Pottery The villages upon the banks of the river are famous for 

their pottery. The visitor will be interested no less by the 
quaintness of the ware itself, than by the methods of its manu- 
facture, which is carried on in open sheds by the wayside. 

Hanwella The large village of Hanwella is reached at the twenty- 

first mile-post from Colombo. It was a place of considerable 
consequence in the davs of the Kandyan kingdom, and 
possessed a fort commanding both by land and water the 
principal route which led from the interior of the island to 
Colombo. Here the last king of Kandy was defeated by 
Captain Pollock. Not far from this place was a palace 
erected for the use of the king when on this his final expedition, 
and in front of it were placed the stakes on which he intended 
to impale the captured British. 







Our view No. 185 is taken from the grounds of the rest- Keiani Valley 
house which occupy the site of the old fort built by the The historic 
Portuguese about three centuries ago. The stone seats observ- r '"t-iwuse 
able in our picture bear inscriptions recording the visits of 
members of the British royal family. King Edward VII. was 
here in 1876. In 1870 Hanwella was visited by the Duke ol 
Edinburgh, and in 1882 by His Majesty King George V. and 
the late Prince Victor. Trees planted by all the Princes will 
be seen flourishing in the grounds. 

The up-river view (Plate 185) is particularly beautiful in River scenery 
the early morning when the Adam's Peak range of mountains 
is visible in the background; the broad silvery stream narrow- 
ing in distant perspective, the rich borders of foliage that 
clothe the lofty and receding banks, the foreground clad with 
verdure and flowers, and the blue haze of distant mountains 
over all make up a picture that does not easily fade from 
memory, but which no photograph can adequately represent. 


The railway itinerary from Colombo to Yatiyantota begins at Keiani Valley 
Maradana Junction. The line upon leaving Colombo runs 
south until the first station, Cotta Road (2m. 20c.) is reached. 
This is a small suburban station within municipal limits. 

After leaving Cotta Road the line traverses the Ridgeway 
golf links (said to be the best low country links in the East) 
to Nugegoda. 

Nugegoda (5m. 52c). — Nugegoda is in the centre of a Nugegoda 
cluster of well-populated villages of which the once famous 
principality of Cotta is the chief. The road scenery in the 
neighbourhood is very charming as may be gathered from our 
plate 189. Although Cotta was the seat of kings in the Cotta 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when the whole country was 
subdivided into petty states, there are no remains of historical 
interest to detain the visitor. The chief institutions in the 
district are the missionary and educational establishments of 
the Church Missionary Society, which date from the year 1818. 

The manufactures consist of pottery and pillow-lace, which 
the villagers may be seen making- in the shade of their palm- 
thatched verandahs. Both may be purchased at surprisingly 
small prices (Plate 186). 

The agricultural products are cinnamon, the various palms 
and garden vegetables, tons of which are sent by rail to the 
Colombo markets. 

Pannipitiya (rom. 49c.). — Pannipitiva offers no special Pannipitiya 
attractions to the visitor. It is a purely Sinhalese village of 
about eight hundred inhabitants, whose occupations chiefly 
consist in the cultivation of the betel, cinnamon and oranges. 


Keiani Valley Homagama (i 5m. 23c). — Homagama station serves a purely 

Lme Sinhalese population engaged in agriculture. The chief pro- 

Hcmagama ducts are the palm, cinnamon, betel, areca nuts, coconut oil 
and garden vegetables. We shall here notice a distinct 
increase in the cultivation of the elegant areca nut palms which 
form one of the noticeable features of the Keiani Valley. 
Arecajaims They adorn the jungle on all sides. A pleasing effect is pro- 
duced by the beautiful delicate stem, with its rich feathery 
crest, standing out from the surrounding foliage. The graceful 
bamboos, the huge waving fronds of the plantain, the shapely- 
mango, covered with the bell-shaped blossoms of the thun- 
bergia creeper, all seem to form a setting in which the elegant 
areca displays its beauties to the greatest possible advantage. 
The virtues of this tree, however, are not aesthetic only. 
It is very prolific in the production of nuts, which grow in 
clusters from the stem just beneath the crest of the palm. 
Previous to the development of the nuts the tree flowers, and 
diffuses a delightful fragrance all around. In size and appear- 
ance the nuts are not unlike the nutmeg, and are similarly- 
enclosed in a husk. What becomes of them is easy to realise 
when it is considered that every man, woman, and child is 
addicted to the habit of betel-chewing, and that the areca 
nut forms part of the compound used for this purpose ; added 
to this, there is an export trade in areca nuts to the amount 
of about ^75,000 per annum. 
Padukka Padukka (21m. 74c). — Padukka is a Sinhalese agricultural 

village of the same character as Homogama, with the addi- 
tional feature of an excellent rest-house. From this point 
onward the railway enters the district where rubber cultiva- 
tion on a large scale is taking place, and the traveller will 
from time to time notice plantations of these most lucrative 
Jak trees trees in various stages of growth. The jak trees in this dis- 

trict will attract the notice of the traveller by their stupendous 
growth and gigantic fruit. The jak not only grows the largest 
of all edible fruits, but it bears it in prodigious quantity and 
in a peculiar fashion. It throws huge pods from the trunk 
and larger branches, and suspends them by a thick and short 
stalk. There are sometimes as many as eighty of these huge 
fruits upon one tree, some of them weighing as much as forty 
to fifty pounds. They are pale green in colour, with a granu- 
lated surface. Inside the rough skin is a soft yellow substance, 
and embedded in this are some kernels about the size of a 
walnut. This fruit often forms an ingredient in the native 
curries, but its flavour is disliked by Europeans. Elephants, 
however, are very fond of it, and its great size would seem to 
make it an appropriate form of food for these huge beasts. 
A much more extensive use of the jak tree is the manufacture 
of furniture from its wood, which is of a yellowish colour 








turning to red when seasoned. It is harder than mahogany, Kelani Valley 
which it somewhat resembles. Line 

Waga (27m. 48c). — From Padukka to Waga the course of Waga 
the railway line is north and approaches to within four miles of 
Hanwella. Thus it will be noticed that the traveller who 
wishes to visit Hanwella without the expense of motor car or 
other conveyance from Colombo, can travel by rail to Waga 
and thence to Hanwella by hackery (Plate 189), which will cost 
about twenty-five cents or fourpence a mile. 

At Hanwella will be found the comfortable rest-house iiaimviia 
already described, where the artist or naturalist will be 
tempted to prolong his stay. Upon leaving Hanwella the 
route mav be varied by driving to Kosgama station instead 
of back to Waga, the distance being about the same. We 
have now reached the outskirts of the Kelani Valley tea 
plantations, and tea has to be added to the list of local 
products, although areca nuts provide most of the freight 
despatched from Waga station. 

Apart from the beautiful scenery and historical associations LeUmgama., 
of Hanwella, the traveller will be well rewarded for a trip 
to Waga by the lovely prospect of the Labugama Lake, from 
which Colombo derives its water supply. Here in silence and 
solitude lies an expanse of water artificially dammed, but with 
such a glorious setting that it is unsurpassed for picturesquc- 
ness in the rest of this beautiful country. Around the basin, 
which is situated 360 feet above sea level, are rugged hills 
rising to upwards of 1,000 feet and exhibiting the greatest 
variety of tropical flora, planted by the hand of nature herself. 
The catchment area of 2,400 acres is intersected by manv 
streams, which flow from the hills over boulder-strewn beds 
bringing pure supplies to the reservoir. The marginal sward, 
like the gold slip of a picture frame, has its pleasing effect at 
the edge of the still waters, in which are mirrored the graceful 
shapes evolved from the mists of a vapour-laden sky. Beauti- 
ful cloud-effects are seldom absent, for it is a locality which 
attracts and then disperses them. The rainfall is indeed 
heavy and frequent, amounting to 160 inches in a year, or 
nearly double that of Colombo. The visitor should therefore 
be prepared accordingly. 

Before the Kelani Valley was exploited for agricultural 
purposes, the locality around Labugama was famous for 
elephant hunting and shooting. A kraal was constructed here 
in 1882 in honour of the visit of His Majesty the King and the 
late Prince Victor, and a large number of elephants were 

Puwakpitiya (34m. 43c). — At Puwakpitiya we reach the Puwakpitiya 
tea cultivation. This station serves the estates of Penrith, 
Elston, Glencorse, Ernan, Ferriby and Northumberland. 


Keiani Valley Rubber is also largely cultivated in this neighbourhood. From 

Line the heights upon Ferriby Estate there are grand views of the 

surrounding mountainous country. 

Avisaweiia Avisawella (36m. 66c). — Avisawella is a town of con- 

siderable importance both historically and as the centre of the 
district. It is moreover at present the junction between the 
rail and coach service to Ratnapura, the city of gems. The 
local products are tea, coconuts, cardamoms, paddy, betel 
leaf, kurrakan, cinnamon, rubber and areca nuts. 

The accommodation for travellers at the rest-house quite 
near the railway station is excellent, and the food supply 
always good. 

suimmka Sitawaka is the historical name of this place, and although 

it has long' disappeared from maps and modern documents, the 
river, a tributary of the Keiani, upon which the ancient city 
stood, is still known as the Sitawaka River (see Plates 191 and 
192). The name is derived from the incident of Sita, the heroine 
of the epic Ramayana, being forcibly brought hither by Rawana. 
This legend of prehistoric times provides a fitting- halo of 
romance for so charming a spot ; but in later times, when 
history has supplanted tradition, we find Sitawaka towards 
the middle of the sixteenth centurv the capital of a lowland 
principality, the stronghold of Mayadunne and his son 
Rajasinha, who had the courage to oppose the King of Cotta 
and the Portuguese, with the result that many bloody battles 
were fought around the city, which eventually, about the close 
of the century, was destroyed by the ruthless Portuguese, who 
scarcely left a stone standing. The beautiful temple, con- 
structed of finely worked granite, and the gorgeous palace 
were burned and wrecked so completely that only traces of 
them are now visible. 

Ratnajmra Ratnapura, to which we have made reference in connection 

with Panadure and Kalutara in our description of the coast 
line, is twenty-six miles from Avisawella, and there is at 
present a dailv coach service between the two places. 

The planters of the Ratnapura district have, however, 
made out a case before the Ceylon Government and an exten- 
sion of the Keiani Valley line, twenty-seven miles in length, 
is now under construction from Avisawella to Ratnapura, and 
will probably be opened for traffic at the end of 1911. The 
country to be traversed is very similar to that already de- 
scribed in the journey from Colombo. 

For exquisite scenery many award the palm to Ratnapura. 
Certain it is that no traveller can be disappointed; for here 
are obtainable distant views of great sublimity in mountain 
walls clothed with forest rising thousands of feet in sheer 
perpendicular ; and in the nearer landscape well-watered 
valleys and undulating- plains may be seen teeming with every 

form of tropical flora. Ratnapura is also the centre of the Kelani Valley 

gemming industry, which is entirely in native hands. Here Llne 

the traveller can obtain an insight into the methods by which Ratnapura 

the hidden treasures of the earth are brought to light. Here Gems, 

under our feet lie the gems that will some day adorn future 

generations of the wealthy. The discovery of these precious 

stones is an unceasing source of considerable wealth. The 

gem-digger comes upon a sapphire, with the possible result 

that a thousand pounds from the coffers of the Rajah in a 

distant land is transferred to the sum of wealth in Ceylon, 

but such valuable finds are few and far between. Genuine 

stones there are in abundance, but those that are flawless and 

of approved tint are the prizes of the industry. 

Deiiiowita (42m. 50c.). — Dehiowita is surrounded by many Dehiowita 
large tea estates, which supply a considerable traffic to the 
railway. Rubber cultivation is on the increase here. The 
little town lies about three quarters of a mile from the railway 
station, and contains about nine hundred inhabitants, many 
of them being estate coolies. 

Karawanella (45m. 40c). — Karawanella station is one mile Karawaneiia 
from the village of Karawanella and two miles from Ruanwella, 
which together have a population of about 1,500. Some of 
the most beautiful scenery in Ceylon is to be found here. The 
river views are perhaps unequalled, especially that from Kara- 
wanella bridge (Plate 196). There are plenty of heights from 
which to view the diversified character of the country. Immense 
perpendicular ledges of rocks rise from the forest, rearing 
their stupendous heads above the thickets of palm and bamboo. 
Even these rocks of granite which appear in giant masses 
all over the forests by disintegration supply nourishment 
for the luxuriant vegetation with which they are covered 
(Plate 199). The reward of human labour is apparent in the 
tea and rubber estates now flourishing where once the lands 
lay in utter devastation as a result of the native wars with 
the Portuguese and Dutch, the country here being the farthest 
point to which the invaders managed to penetrate. 

At Ruanwella the rest-house and its grounds, which are Ruanwella 
on the site of a ruined fort, are in themselves full of interest, 
and will be found so conducive to comfort as to make the 
visitor who is not pressed for time very loth to leave. A fine 
archway, the entrance to the ancient fort, is still preserved, 
and forms an interesting feature in the gardens. The site, 
commanding as it did the water communication between 
Kandy and Colombo, was of great importance. Here the 
Kandyans made more than one brave but ineffectual stand 
against the British troops in the early part of the nineteenth 
century- At this time the Kandyan king's royal garden was 
occupied by British troops, and was thus described by 



Keiani Valley Percival : — "The grove where we encamped was about two 
Line miles in circumference, being bound on the west by a large, 

The king's deep and rapid branch of the Malivaganga, while in front 

garden towards Ruanwella another branch ran in the south-east 

direction, winding in such a manner that the three sides 
of the grove were encompassed by water, while the fourth was 
enclosed by thick hedges of bamboos and betel trees. This 
extensive coconut-tree garden lies immediately under steep and 
lofty hills, which command a most romantic view of the sur- 
rounding country. It forms part of the king's own domains, 
and is the place where his elephants were usually kept and 
trained. " 

The British retained Ruanwella as a military post until 
the new road to Kandy was completed and the pacification of 
the Kandyans entirely accomplished, after which the fort and 
commandant's quarters were transformed into a well- 
appointed rest-house and picturesque gardens. The ruined 
entrance still bears the initials of Governor Sir Robert Brown- 
rigg and the date 1817. 
Produce boats A pleasant stroll from the rest-house, through shady groves 

of areca and other palms, brings us to a part of the river which 
is not only very picturesque, but gives evidence of its use 
of commerce as a highway. Here we can see the quaint pro- 
duce boats and the curiously constructed bamboo rafts being 
laden with freight for the port of Colombo. 

From this point to Colombo the distance by water is about 
sixty miles ; and such is the rapidity of the current after the 
frequent and heavy rainfalls that these boats are able to reach 
Colombo in one day ; the only exertion required of the boatmen 
being such careful steering as to keep clear of rocks, trees, 
and sandbanks. The return journey, however, is a more 
arduous task, and entails great labour and endurance for 
many days. 
Yatiyantota Yatiyantota (47m. 6oc). — Yatiyantota is the present 

terminus of the Keiani Valley railway. It is very much shut 
in by hills and in consequence very warm. There is a good 
rest-house with two bedrooms. 

There are few attractions here for the visitor; but it serves 
as a halting place for those who proceed by this route to 
Dickoya and the higher planting districts, the mountain pass 
to which is a thing of very great natural beauty and of its 
kind unequalled in Ceylon, where so many mountain passes 
have lost their primitive beauty owing to the inroads of 
modern cultivation clearing away all the primeval forest. 
Here, in the Ginigathena Pass, the landscape has not yet 
suffered, and the views from Kitulg-ala at the eighth mile from 
Yatiyantota are exceedingly beautiful. Upon leaving the rest- 
house the road runs along the banks of the Keiani, as seen 




Keiani.Vaiiey in our plate 198, the ascent beginning about the third mile. 

Llne There are no conveyances to be obtained at Yatiyantota 

except bullock hackeries, and the visitor who wishes to pro- 
ceed by this route to Hatton should therefore make the trip 
by motor car from Colombo. But for the tourist who explores 

Cinigatkcna t] le Kelani Valley at leisure, a walking tour up the Ginigathena 
Pass, with a hackery for an occasional ride, is pleasant 
enough, and may be done by making headquarters at Ruan- 
wella rest-house which is cooler and pleasanter than Yati- 

Kegaiu In the same way the tourist may make a trip from Ruan- 

wella to Kegalle (twenty miles), through a lovely wooded and 
undulating country. The cyclist will find it easy to explore 
the whole of the Kelani Valley by using the railway for the 
longer journeys, and taking short excursions on his bicycle 
from the various rest-houses. 







The last completed section of the Ceylon Government Railway Negombo Line 

is the Negombo Line (broad gauge), which extends from 

Ragama Junction, on the main line, in a northerly direction 

for fourteen and a half miles. This line will be eventually 

further extended to serve the populous villages of the western 

coast and the important towns of Chilaw and Puttalam. The 

visitor is recommended to make the short trip to Negombo 

both on account of the interesting scenery en route and the 

picturesque features of the town itself. The first station 

reached after leaving the junction of Ragama, which is only 

nine miles from Colombo, is Kandana. 

Kandana (2m. 5c). — This station chiefly serves the native Kandana 
agriculturist, who is occupied in the cultivation of all manner 
of garden produce for the market of Colombo. At the begin- 
ning of the fifth mile we reach a place of much greater 
importance — Ja-ela. 

Ja-ela (4m. ioc.). — There is a local tradition that in early Ja-ela 
times this place was occupied by Malays from Java, who con- 
structed a canal (ela) and named the locality Ja-ela, signifying 
their origin and achievement. For many centuries the district 
has been famous for its cinnamon, which, whether wild or 
cultivated, has been found to possess a quality of distinctly 
superior aroma. There is an excellent rest-house close to the 

Siduwa Road (7m. 78c). — This is merely a small siding siduwa Road 
where tickets are issued for the convenience of the inhabitants 
of outlying villages too distant from other stations. It is 
approached by Dandugamuwa bridge, which we illustrate. 

Katunayake (10m. 45c.) is situated amidst well-watered katunayake 
fields and gardens, where a thriving and busy population de- 
vote themselves to a great variety of tropical culture and 
to whom the introduction of the railway is proving a boon of 
considerable importance. 

Negombo (14m. 42c). — Negombo is one of the most Negombo 
picturesque towns in Ceylon, and is, moreover, favoured with 
perhaps the richest soil, a property which accounts for the 
magnificent appearance of the vegetation throughout the dis- 
trict. In this respect it is indeed unsurpassed anywhere in the 
island. Its products include many exotic fruits, originally 

2 3 r 




introduced from Java and the Malay Peninsula, while its in- Negombo Lin 
digenous plants and trees include almost the whole flora 
of Ceylon, in the most beautiful combination that the vegetable 
kingdom is capable of exhibiting, or that the most fertile 
imagination can picture. Every reference to Negombo in the 
wide range of literature that has been devoted to Ceylon since 
the arrival of Europeans at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century has noted this fact with appreciation. After the 
eulogies of the Portuguese and the Dutch, Cordiner wrote 
in 1807: "The Jack, the bread-fruit, the jamboo, and the 
cashew-tree weave their spreading branches into an agreeable 
shade amidst the stems of the areca and coconut. The black 
pepper and betel plants creep up the sides of the lofty trunks ; 
cinnamon and an immense variety of flowering shrubs fill the 
intermediate spaces, and the mass of charming foliage is 
blended together with a degree of richness that beggars tin- 
powers of description. All the beautiful productions of the 
island are here concentrated in one exuberant spot, and, as 
Ceylon has been termed the garden of India, this province 
may be styled the herbarium of Ceylon." Modern methods of 
culture have still further intensified the luxuriant aspect of the 
district ; and now that the railway has rendered it so easily 
accessible, its botanical marvels and its charmingly picturesque 
features will deservedly become as familiar to the European 
traveller as those of Kalutara and Galle. The town has a 
population of 20,000 inhabitants, mostly Sinhalese. The 
bungalows, suggestive of Dutch influence in their architec- 
tural features, are neat and clean, and the whole place exhibits 
a well-kept appearance befitting the seat of an Assistant 
Government Agent who presides over the district. An im- 
portant item to the traveller is the capacious rest-house 
situated upon a walled embankment overlooking an extensive 
and beautiful lake (see Plate 202). Here the traveller will 
find the necessaries of life, and such native delicacies and 
luxuries as unrivalled tropical gardens and fisheries can 
afford. Quaint craft will be seen sailing to and fro in front 
of this hostelry. In close proximity is the bridge observable 
in our picture of the water carriers (Plate 203), leading to the 
pretty island of Numnai Karsi, where salt may be seen oozing 
through the sand in sufficient quantity to be segregated for 
table use. The smaller island of Kuttai Duwe, famous for its 
auctions of fish, is also observable to the right. Sailing upon 
this charming lake is one of the pleasantest recreations of 
visitors. The quaint operations of the fisherfolk are an unfail- 
ing attraction to those who have never before seen them. 
The Dutch, during their occupation of the maritime provinces, 
applied their proverbial genius for the construction of water- 
ways in looping together the large saltwater lakes of 


Negombo Line the western coast by means of canals. Thus they were able 
to carry produce from Puttalam to Colombo without the 
risk of navigating- in the open sea. The canal at Negombo 
affords the visitor a very good specimen of these waterways, 
and, moreover, provides the amateur photographer with some 
very attractive subjects for his camera. 

In the town, also, there are many things of interest that 
should not escape the traveller. The manufacture of curiosities 
in brass is carried on extensively, and, although it is perhaps 
easier to buy the finished article in Colombo, whither it is 
usually sent as soon as fashioned, the visitor to Negombo 
should inspect the primitive methods by which the natives 
produce many articles of real merit. 

An old Dutch fort of the year 1678, still mounting two 
guns, will attract attention. This was originally the site of a 
stockade erected in earlier times by the Portuguese, who held 
Negombo as a sanitarium ; but their conquerors, the Dutch, 
who came into possession of Negombo early in the seventeenth 
century, were prompt to perceive the commercial value of the 
district and its suitability for the cultivation of cinnamon ; and 
to the end that they might exploit the land to the fullest 
advantage they converted the stockade into a considerable 
fortress, with four batteries, which enabled them to control 
the natives who were within their reach and to protect their 
gangs of cinnamon searchers and peelers. Within this old 
fortress are now the courts and offices of the Government. 
A large proportion of the inhabitants of Negombo are stead- 
fast adherents of the Roman faith, a heritage which has 
descended to them from the Portuguese. Their church of 
St. Mary, which has been under construction for about fifteen 
years, is well worth a visit. The magnificent altar of marble 
has alone cost about twenty thousand rupees, mainly con- 
tributed by the poor fisherfolk, who systematically apply a 
certain proportion of their catch to the fund required. 
Negombo may be explored without much expense, the rates 
of carriage hire being very moderate. From 6 a.m. to 7 p.m., 
Rs.4; any six consecutive hours, Rs.2; one hour, R.i; 
each additional hour, 75 cents. 

The average temperature of Negombo is 8o° F., and the 
annual rainfall 69 inches. 



British sovereigns are legal tender at the rate of £i for 15 rupees. 

The silver coins in use in Ceylon are Indian rupees and the decimal 
coinage of Ceylon consisting of 50 cents (half rupee), 25 cents (quarter 
rupee), and 10 cents (one tenth of the rupee). 

The bronze coinage consists of five-cent, one-cent, half-cent, and 
quarter-cent pieces. 


For Steam Launches, Baals anal Canoes. 

Per Head. 
From landing jetty to any vessel, or vice versa, or 
from one vessel to another within the Break- 
water 25 cents 

For the return journey ... ... ... ... ... 2^ cents 

[In each case between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., 40 cents.] 

The above fares include one hour's detention for boats and canoes. 

For every subsequent hour's detention 40 cents between 6 a.m. and 
7 p.m., and 50 cents between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., per boat (not passenger). 

Two children under ten count as an adult ; children under two go free. 

Special agreement must be made for boats or canoes required for 
special service. 

For Baggage. 

Chairs, hand-bags, or straps of rugs (with owner) Free 

,, ,, ,, (without owner) 5 cents each 

Small packages (up to 33 in. by 19 in. by 18 in.) 10 to 15 cents 

Large boxes or cases ... ... ... ... ... 25 cents 

Disputes should be referred to the Jetty Sergeant, while gross im- 
position or incivility can be reported to the Master Attendant (Harbour 
Master), whose office is in the Custom House, and who in all matters 
connected with the wharf and the shipping acts as Police Magistrate. 


Licensed Guides wearing dark blue coats with green facings can be 
engaged at the Guides' Shelter near the landing jetty. The fee is 50 cents 
for the first hour and 25 cents for each additional hour. 

Rs. c. 



4 5° • 

•■ 3 

2 50 . 



50 . 



1 . 


50 . 




1st Class 2nd Class 
For carriages drawn by one horse : — 
From 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. 
Any six consecutive hours between 6 a.m. 

and 7 p.m. ... 
For half-an-hour 
For one hour 

For ever}' subsequent hour or portion 
[The charges are for a whole carriage, not for each passenger.] 
Between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m. one-third more. 

Beyond Municipal limits (outside the toll-bars) an agreement should 
be made, otherwise the rate demanded is generally 75 cents per mile, 
including return journey, but exclusive of tolls. 

The usual fare for a carriage to Mount Lavinia and back or to Cotta 
and back is Rs. 5, ill addition to payment of toll. 

If extortionate fares are demanded, as they often are, the driver should 
be asked to produce the fare table, which he is bound to carry; though no 
one is likely, if well served, to object to an advance, by way of a 
fourboirc , on the strictly legal fare. 

Rates foe 'Rickshas. 

Not exceeding ten minutes ... 

Each half-hour 

Each hour 

For each subsequent half-hour 

Between 7.30 p.m. and 6 a.m. one-third extra. 

By Day 
Rs. c. 


By Night 

Rs. c. 


•• 5 


... 5 


... 10 


... s 


Abhayagiri}'a Dagaba, 194-195 
Adam's Peak, 130, 131, 132 

Hotel, 129 

Agra-oya, 134 
Agrapatana, 134 
Ahangama, 65 
Alawwa, So 
Allagalla, 82, S3, S5 
Alutgama, 56 
Aluwihare, 11S, 119 
Ambagamuwa, 12S 
Ambalangoda, 58, 59 
Ambanpola, 172 
Ambastala Dagaba, 177 
Ambawcla, 14S 
Ambepussa, So 
Angulana, 40 
Anuradhapura, 172-202 
Areca palms, 220 
Arrack, 52 

Attractions of Ceylon, 1 
Avisawella, 224 


Badulla, 153 
Balpitiya, 5S 

Bambalapitiya, 34, 35 

Bandarawela, 153 

Banyan tree, 16 

Bentota, 57 

Beruwala, 54, 56 

Bo-tree, Ancient, 1S0, 181 

Boat hire in harbour of Colombo, 

23 s 
Borella, 12 
Brazen Palace, 1S5 
Brookside, 167 


Canoes, Sinhalese, 6 

Carriage hire, 235 

Cathedral of Saint Thomas, 18 

Santa Lucia, 18 

Chatham Street, 9 

Chavakachcheri, 207 

Chunakam, 214 

Cinnamon culture, 44, 45, 46 

Gardens, Colombo, 17, 35 

Climate, 2, 3 

Coconut cultivation, 75, 76, 77, 78, 

Colombo, The approach to, 4 

, The Fort, 7 

Cotta, 219 
Customs, 6 


Dalada, Anuradhapura, 200, 201 

Dambula, 119, 120 

Dawson, 87 

Dehiowita, 22^ 

Dehiwala, 36, 37 

Dekanda Valley, S3, S5 

Dewale, Definition "1, 87 

Dhobies, iq 

Dimbula, 133 

Djyatalawa, j 53 

Dodanduwa, 61 

Dodanwala, 88, 89 

Dolosbage, 127 

Dumbara, 10; 

Edinburgh Crescent, 16 
Elara, 184 
Elephant Pass, 206 
Embekke, 88 
F.mbilmigama, 88 
Etwehera Dagaba, 176 


Fishing industry, 36 

Flora, 3 

Flower Road, iS 

Flying foxes, 98 

Fort, Colombo, Plan of the, 7 

, Railway station, 12, 31, 

3 2 

2 3 3 


Gadaladeniya, SS, 3S1 
Galboda, 12S 
Galgamuwa, 172 
Galle, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 
Galle Face, 13 

Hotel, 14 

Gampola, 125, 126, 127 

Ganewatte, 168, 171 

Garden Club, The Colombo, 16 

Giant's Tank, 203 

Ginigathena Pass, 228 

Gintota, 61 

Golf Links, Colombo, 17 

Grand Pass, 12 

Green Path, 16, 18, 35 

Guides, 13 

Guildford Crescent, 65 


Habarane, 123 
Hakgalla, 165 
Hantanne, 105 
Hanwella, 216, 223 
Haputale, 152 
Hatton, 129 
Henaratgoda, 72 
Hikkaduwa, 61 
Hog's Back Tunnel, 12S 
Ilomagama, 220 
Horton Place, 17 
Horton Plains, 1 51 
Hotel, Bristol, 7 

, Carlton House, 156 

, Galle Face, 7 

, Grand, 156 

, Grand Oriental, 7 

, Mount Lavinia, 39 

, New Keena, 156 

, St. Andrews, 156 

Hunupitiya, 71 


Induruwa, 57 
Isurumuniya, 1S2 


Ja-ela, 231 
Jaffna, 20S-213 
Jak trees, 220, 221 
Jewellers, 10 
Jetawanarama, 196, 197 
Jinrickshaw hire, 236 

Kadugannawa, Dewales at, 87 

Kaduwela, 216 

Kalutara, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 

Kamburugamuwa, 66 

Kandana, 231 

Kandapola, 166, 167 

Kandy, 99-115 

, Arrival of the British at, 100 

, Climate of, 104 

, History of, 100 

, Hotels of, 103 

Lake, 101 

, Map of, 102 

, Population and area, 103 

Kankesanturai, 214 
Kanthalai, 123 
Karuwanella, 225 
Katugastota, 116 
Katukurunda, 55 
Katunayake, 231 
Kegalle, Sr, 228 
Kelani Valley, 215-229 
Kelaniya, 69 
, Making tiles at, 70 

River, 70 

, Scene on the river, 70 

Temple, 71 

Kodikamam, 207 
Kollupitiya, 14, 35 
Kosgoda, 57 
Kotagala, 132 
Kurunegala, 169, 170 

Labugama, 223 
Lake of Colombo, 14 
Lankatilake, 8S, 89 
Lunawa, 40 


Madawachchi, 202 
Maggona, 56 
Mahaiyawa, 116 
Mahamega, 17S, 179 
Maha Sen, 196 

■ Seya, 175 

Mahaweliganga, 116 

Mahinda, 177 

Maho, 171 

Mankulam, 206 

Map of Anuradhapura, 173 

Fort of Colombo, 7 

Kandy, 102 

Peradeniya Gardens, 90 

the railways, facing -p. 1 



Maradana statical, 31 

Matale, 117, 118 

Matara, 66, 67, 6S 

Mihintale, 174 

Minheria, 123 

Mirigama, 75 

Monsoons, 2 

Moonstones, Architectural, 198, 190 

Moratuwa, 40, 41, 42, 43 

Lagoon, 42 

Mount Lavinia, 3$, 39 
Museum, Colombo, 14, 16, 17 

of Art at Kandy, 10S 

Mutwall, iS 


Nalande, 119, 120 

Nanuoya, 14S, 154, 155 

National Bank of India, 11 

Navatkuli, 207 

Nawalapitiya, 1 28 

Xegombo, 231-234 

Nilganga, 6S 

Northern Line itinerary, 16S-214 

Nugedoda, 219 

Nuwara Lliya, 156-165 

, amusements, 162, 165 

climate, 160 

Golf Club, 162 

, Season of, 160 


Ohiya, 150, 1^1 

1'adukka, 220 
Paiyagala, 55 
Pallai, 207 

Palmyra cultivation, 20S 
Panedure, 47 
Pannapitiya, 219 
Pansala, Definition of, 87 
Papaw, 94, 95 
Paranthan, 206 
Park Street, Colombo, 14 
Pattipola, 14S 
Peradeniya, 90 

Botanic Gardens, 90-99 

Junction, 91, 125 

, map of Gardens, 90 

Pettah, 32 

Pidurutallagalla, 161 
Point Pedro, 207 
Pokunas, 190, 193, 194 
Polgahawela, 81 

Polonnaruwa, 123 

Post Office, The General, S 

Potuhera, 16S 

Poya-ge, 87 

Prince of Wales' College, 40 

Pussellawa, 127 

Puwakpitiya, 223 

Queen Street, Colombo, 9 
Queen's Ifouse, Colombo, 8 


Racecourse, Colombo, 17 
Ragalla, 167 
Ragama, 71, 72 
Railway regulations, 24-29 

, animals, 28 

, bicycles, 29 

, break of journey, 27 

, children, 27 

, horses and vehicles, 28 

, invalids' accommoda- 
tion, 25 

j luggage, 24 

, petrol, 2S 

, special terms for par- 
ties, 28 

, special trains, 26 

, telegrams, 28 

, tickets, 27 

Railway, The, 19 

, Coast Line, 20, 32 

, Kelani Valley Line, 23, 215- 


, Main Line, 20 

, Matale Line, 20, 116 

, Negombo Line, 230-234 

, Northern Line, 20, 16S 

, Udapussellawa Line, 23, 155 

, list of stations, 29, 30 

, refreshment cars, 22, 23 

, rolling stock, 23 

, sleeping cars, 21, 23 

, workshops, 22 

Rainfall, 2 

Rambodde, 127 

Rambukkana, 82 

Rameseram, 203 

Ratnapura, 4S, 51, 224, 225 

Reservoir at Kandy, 113, 114 

Royal College, 12 

Rozelle, 129 

Ruanweli Dagaba, 186-191 

Ruanwella, 225, 226 

Rubber, 72, 73, 74 



St. Clair Falls, 133 
St. Joseph's College, 14, 15 
St. Thomas' College, iS 
Siduwa Road, 231 
Sigiri, 120, I2i, 122 
Slave Island, 14, 33, 3^ 

Talawa, 172 

Talawakele, 133 

Talipot palms, 81, 82 

Talpe, 6q 

Tea planting, 134-147 

Technical school, 12 

Temperature, 2 

Temple of the Tooth, 105, 106 

Thuparama at Anuradhapura, 180 

Tiles, Manufacture of, 70 

Tissa, 177 

Tobacco, 20S, 209, 211 

Toddy, 52 

Toluwila, 202 

Tramways, Colombo, 10, 12 

Trincomali, 123, 124 


Udapussellawa, 167 
Ukuwela, 117 
Ulapane, 127 

Union Place, 14. 15 
United Club, 165 
Uva, 149-153 

Vauxhall Road, 14, 15 
Vavuniya, 204 
Veyangoda, 74, 75 
Victoria Arcade, 11 
Park, 14, 16, 17, 35 


Wadduwa, 4S 
Vvaga, 223 
Wanni, 204, 205 
Watagoda, 147 
Watawala, 129 
Wattegama, 116 
Weligama, 66 
Wellawa, 171 
Wellawatta, 33, 34, 35 
Wihare, Definition of, 87 
Wolfendahl, 18 
World's End, 152 

Yapahuwa, 171 
Yatiyantota, 226 
York Street, 10 

p.y Cassell and Company, Limited, La Belle Sauvage, London, E.C. 

Grand Oriental Hotel, 


Facing the Harbour, offers a (magnificent view of the surrounding 
Coast, and is in close proximity to the Post and Telegraph lOffices, Banks, 
Shipping Agencies, Customs, and a few minutes drive from the Railway 
Station and Cinnamon Gardens. 

Electric Fans in Bedrooms and Public Rooms. Suites of Rooms, 
Private, Dining, Reading, and Drawing Rooms. 

The only Hotel in Colombo with Tropical Garden. 

The Hotel Orchestra plays during Tiffin (Luncheon) and Dinner every 
day, and at special Garden Concerts on Wednesday and Sunday Evenings. 


Special Terms for Families and Visitors making a prolonged stay. 
Cook's Coupons accepted. 


Telegrams: "GRAND, COLOMBO." 

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Extensively) Enlarged and Improved, 

Lift. Electric Light throughout. Baths on all Floors. 
Superior Accommodation for 250 Visitors. 

This First-Class Hotel 

Is 1,700 feet above Sea level and occupies the best Site 

in the Mountain Capital, overlooking the lovely 

Lake, Mountains, Esplanade, and the Ancient 

Temple of the Buddhist Religion, the 

Shrine of Buddha's Tooth. 

Within Three Minutes Drive of the Railway Station. 
Four Trains to and from Colombo Daily. 



On parle Franqais. Man Spricht Deutsch. 

Telegraphic Address : M. FRIEDHOFF, 

•QUEEN'S, KANDY." Manager. 



Only a Few Minutes Drive from the Passenger Jetty, the Galle 
Face and Grand Oriental Hotels. 



Please ask for Walkers' Motor 
Guide through Ceylon. 

Giving full particulars of Tariff, &c, and description of the 
principal trips that can easily be made. 

Rates are 


Fully Inclusive. 

Special Terms 
for Long 
23* Engagements. 



Telegraphic Address: "WALKERS," COLOMBO. 


Telephone Numbers: 142, 189 and 288. 


Total fleet 85 steamers. 

Total gross tonnage over 320,000. 

Controlling Owner: 

Sir John R. Ellerman, Bart, 



Tonnage. Hon 

C.ty of AgTa 

... B 



tCity of London .. 

.. A 



tCity of Athens ... 

... A 



City of Lucknow 

., B 


1 Sou 

tCity of Benares... 




City of Madras ... 

.. B 



tCity of Calcutta... 




City of Madrid ... 

.. B 



City of Chester (Buildi 

,j;j B 



tCity of Manchester 

.. A 



City of Colombo ... 

... B 



City of Naples ... 

.. B 



City of Corinth ... 

... A 



ICity of Paris ... 

.. A 



City of Delhi 

... B 



City of Sparta ... 

.. A 


3 sou 

City of Edinburgh 

... B 



City of Vienna 

.. A 



+City of Glasgow 




tCity of York ... 




tCity of Karachi ... 




New Steamer (Building-) 

.. B 



t Carries also Second Class Passengers. 

Through Booking Arrangements with the Norddeutscher 
Lloyd, Bremen. 

Passengers are booked through by steamers of the City Line from Calcutta, Madras 
and Colombo, and by the City and Hall Lines from Bombay and Karachi to Suez 
or Port Said, thence by Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer from Alexandria to Naples and 
Marseilles, or by Norddeutscher Lloyd from Port Said to Naples, Genoa, Antwerp, 
Hamburg and Bremen. The cost of railway journey from Suez to Port Said or 
from Suez to Alexandria is on passenger's account. 

Interchangeable Return Tickets 

City Line return tickets to London may be made available to come back by 
Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer from European ports and Naples, subject to any difference 
in fares being paid. Other particulars as per special pamphlet. 

Managers: Messrs. GEORGE SMITH & SONS, 

75, Both well Street, Glasgow. 
For particulars of freight and passage apply to 

AITKEN, SPENCE & CO., Agents, 


Round Ceylon 

nd to 

South India and Back 

by the splendidly appointed steamers 


For further particutars apply to 


Managing Agents, 


Fast Twin Screw Mail and Passenger Steamers. 


The Bibby Fleet now consists entirely of Twin Screw Steamers, all fitted with bilge 
keels, and specially built for the First Class Eastern Passenger trade, viz : — 










These fast and powerful Sleamers (specially constructed by Messrs. Harland and 
Wolff, Belfast, for the Eastern Trade) are of the most modern type, and uniformly 
provided with every possible comfort for passengers. 

The Saloon State Rooms, etc., are amidship and fitted for first class passengers only. 
The State Rooms throughout the fleet are placed entirely on the main and promenade 
decks, thus ensuring ample light and ventilation under all circumstances. Patent 
mechanical ventilation and refrigerators. Experienced Surgeon and Stewardess carried. 

Electrical Fans provided in all the cabins free of charge. 

COLOMBO TO RANGOON.— Regular Sailings every 


. FARES . 





Horse Fowc 











































Suez, Ismailia, or Port Said 



Marseilles ... 



London by Sea 



London, Overland ... 



London by Sea, returning from Marseilles / 


Marseilles, returning from Liverpool by Sea \ 

First Class Railway Tickets between Marseilles and London issued at Rs. 75 each. 
Children under 12 years, travelling with Parents, half-price; one child under three 
years {no berth provided,) free. Liberal concessions to families. Return Tickets are 
not subject to any allowances. Particulars on application. 

Passengers from Southern India, joining steamers at Colombo are refunded the cost of 
the journey, Tuticorin to Colombo. 

For further particulars re Freight or Passage, apply to— 

CARSON & Co., Agents, Colombo 


Head Office : 




Branches also at 



Thos. Cook & Son have at all their offices a trained and competent 
staff, conversant through the experience or years, with all the 
details of Travel through India, Burmah, and Ceylon, and 

they respectfully invite all visitors to Ceylon to call at their 
offices and make arrangements for their Indian Tours. 


Railway Tickets issued over all Railways of India, Burmah, 
and Ceylon and throughout the World. 


Steamship Tickets issued on all Lines around India and through- 
out the World. 


Packages of every description stored and shipped as Cargo to all 
parts of the World, at lowest rates. 

Passengers' Baggage shipped on steamers at lowest rates. 
Letters of Credit and Circular Notes issued and cashed.